- The 30 Year Journey: Experiences of Progressive Inclusion from the Perspectives of Three Adults with Physical Disabilities (1998) by Mair Hall is a reprint of an article (Exceptionality Education Canada, 8(2), 57-80) that explores the experiences of progressive inclusion from the perspectives of three Eastern Canadian adults with physical disabilities and who, by their own accounts, were educated in mainstream or inclusive programs. The adult stories serve as a basis for discussion of the relationship between rhetoric and actual practices under the concept. For a copy of this journal article, contact the Center on Human Policy.
- Building Stronger Communities For All: Thoughts About Community Participation for People with Developmental Disabilities (1999) by Robert Bogdan and Steven J. Taylor is a paper that presents some thoughts and observations on what It means for people with developmental disabilities to be part of the community.
- Caught in the Continuum: A Critical Analysis of the Principle of the Least Restrictive Environment (1988) by Steven J. Taylor is a reprint of an article (JJournal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 13(1), 41-53) which reviews the origin of LRE, analyzes the conceptual and philosophical flaws of LRE especially for people with severe disabilities, and contrasts integration with LRE as a guiding principle. For a copy of this journal article, contact the Center on Human Policy.
- CHP Archives: Annotated Bibliography on Community Integration, Third Edition (1998) edited by Mair Hall and Pam Walker describes many of the best resources on community integration for people with developmental and other disabilities.
- CHP Archives: Community Integration Policy and Practice Abstracts, Fifth Edition (1999) prepared by Julia Searl and updated by Perri Harris is the fifth edition of a compilation of recent journal articles relevant to community inclusion for people with developmental disabilities and includes topics of education, employment, policy, communication and supported living.
- CHP Archives: Community Living for Adults is a newsbulletin highlighting promising practices, issues and resources in supporting adults in the community.
- Closing Brandon Training School: A Vermont Story
- Coming Home: From Deinstitutionalization to Supporting People in Their Own Homes in Region VI, New Hampshire
- Community for All is Possible: Promoting Home and Community Life at Community Vision, Inc. (.pdf) (2001) by Pam Walker describes Community Vision, an agency in Portland, Oregon that has assisted people to move out of institutions and nursing homes and live in the community.
- The Community Choir: Singing for an Inclusive Society
- The Continuum and Current Controversies in the USA (2001) by Steven J. Taylor is a reprint of an article (Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 26(1), 15-33) reviewing policy developments in deinstitutionalization and community inclusion in North America, and, specifically, the USA. The article starts with a critique of the continuum concept and the associated principle of the least restrictive environment, which have been used as a conceptual framework for the design of services for people with intellectual disability. It then examines past and current controversies surrounding deinstitutionalization, and concludes with brief comments on the institution versus community debate and assesses the future of the continuum concept. For a copy of this journal article, contact the Center on Human Policy.
- Community Participation and Social Networks: An Information Package (.pdf) (2002) prepared by Pam Walker addresses issues and strategies related to promoting community membership for people with developmental disabilities.
- Creating Meaningful Daytimes: Community Building at Options for Individuals, Louisville, Kentucky (.pdf) (1998) by Pam Walker describes the successes and challenges of creating meaningful daytimes at Options for Individuals in Louisville, Kentucky. (21 pages).
- From Community Presence to Sense of Place: Community Experiences of Adults with Developmental Disabilities (1999) by Pam Walker is a reprint of an article (JASH, 24(1), 23-32) which discusses community experiences and the importance of place, and a sense of place, for community inclusion and membership. For a copy of this journal article, contact the Center on Human Policy.
- IMPACT: Feature Issue on Volunteerism by Persons with Developmental Disabilities (.pdf) (2001) includes articles that offer strategies and vision, encouraging greater inclusion of people with developmental disabilities in volunteerism. This bulletin was published through the IMPACT series of the Institute on Community Integration at the University of Minnesota in cooperation with the Center on Human Policy.
- People are People
- Policy Bulletin on Individualized Services in New York State contains several brief articles describing examples of individualized supports in New York State. The bulletin also includes discussion of issues and challenges related to policy and practice regarding individualized supports.
- Publications and Resources by John O’Brien and Connie Lyle O’Brien
- Against Pain as a Tool in Professional Work on People with Severe Disabilities (.pdf) (1989) by John O’Brien is an essay arguing against the use of pain, often cloaked in the terms “aversive treatment” and “intrusive procedures” for the control of people with severe disabilities.
- Assistance with Integrity: The Search for Accountability and the Lives of People with Developmental Disabilities (.pdf) (1993) by John O’Brien and Connie Lyle O’Brien is a discussion piece, intended to stimulate controversy and dispute, about support for people who rely on service providers for 24-hour assistance. It addresses the field’s concerns about such issues as safety, quality, and the potential for abuse, and calls for major reorganization of the current system of service provision. (50 pages)
- Community Engagement: A Necessary Condition for Self-Determination and Individual Funding (.pdf) (1999) by John O’Brien is a paper based on a meeting of a working group of family members, service workers, and people with disabilities from Ontario, Canada, concerned about building a strong foundation for community living.
- Deliberate-Fire: An Account of Organizational Transformation in Onondaga Community Living, Syracuse, New York (.pdf) (1995) by John O’Brien describes the organizational transformation at Onondaga Community Living from the perspective of people supported by the agency as well as families, staff, administrators, and board members.
- Designing Policies in Support of Inclusive Community: Questions for Decision Makers (.pdf) (1989) by John O’Brien asks policymakers to examine the effects of funding priorities and service policy decisions on the capacity of communities to include people with disabilities.
- The Genius of the Principle of Normalization (.pdf) (1999) by John O’Brien describes the impact of the principle of normalization based on both the ideas embedded in it as well as the teaching of its application.
- My House is Covered with Papers! Reflections on a Generation of Active Citizenship (.pdf) (1999) by Connie Lyle O’Brien and John O’Brien tells the stories of five women, mothers of children with disabilities, who have made and continue to make important contributions to the civic work of shaping policies and programs that offer people with developmental disabilities the opportunities and supports they need to be full and responsible citizens.
- Never Give Up: Assets Inc.’s Commitment to Community Life for People Seen as “Difficult to Serve” (.pdf) (2003) by John O’Brien, with Kathryn Carssow, Matthew Jones, Maxwell Mercer, Laronsia Reynolds and Diana Strzok summarizes the results of a focus group with Assets staff concerning their learning experiences in serving people with developmental disabilities and/or psychiatric disabilities designated as “difficult to serve.” (38 pages).
- Pathfinders: Making the Way from Segregation to Community Life (.pdf) (2001) by Connie Lyle O’Brien, Beth Mount, John O’Brien and Fredda Rosen describes Pathfinder, a project of Job Path in New York City, focused on assisting students with disabilities to transition to meaningful work and other community involvements and relationships.
- Record of The Complexities of Community Building (1997) by John O’Brien is a record of a gathering to reflect on experiences and hopes about community building. For a copy of this paper, contact the Center on Human Policy.
- Remembering the Soul of Our Work: Stories by the Staff of Options in Community Living, Madison, Wisconsin (1992) edited by John O’Brien and Connie Lyle O’Brien collects 150 stories written between 1987 and 1991 by Options staff who support people with disabilities in their own homes. Their stories effectively communicate some of the qualities that make their work meaningful. To order a copy of this book, contact the Options in Community Living.
- One Day at a Time: Changing a System to Realize a Dream (.pdf) by John O’Brien, Ray Browning, and Connie Lyle O’Brien is a paper about lessons for service system change based on the story of Ray Browning, who moved from a nursing home to his own home.
- Reflecting on Social Roles: Identifying Opportunities to Support Personal Freedom & Social Integration (.pdf) (2006) by John O’Brien is an inventory with the purpose of encouraging thoughtful discussion of the meaning of “least restrictive and most integrated” as criteria for service adequacy. (19 pages)
- Signs of Community Building (.pdf) (1989) by John O’Brien summarizes a visit with people involved in community building activities in the Phoenixville-Kimberton area of Chester County, Pennsylvania.
- Telling New Stories: The Search for Capacity Among People with Severe Handicaps (.pdf) (1989) by John O’Brien and Beth Mount contrasts a new kind of storytelling–done to respond to real changes in a person’s life–with the story told by traditional service plans.
- A Tune Beyond Us, Yet Ourselves: Power Sharing Between People with Substantial Disabilities and Their Assistants (1996) by John O’Brien and Connie Lyle O’Brien concerns creating relationships and supports that offer people the assistance they require in ways that increase their effective control of their lives.
- Unfolding Capacity: People with Disabilities and Their Allies Building Better Communities Together (.pdf) (1994) by John O’Brien and Connie Lyle O’Brien offers a perspective on community building around and with people with substantial disabilities and explores five commitments that build community.
- What’s Worth Working For? Leadership for Better Quality Human Services (.pdf) (1989) by John O’Brien looks at leadership practices that contribute to organizational capacity to support people, build alliances, and incorporate skilled assistance into ordinary settings.
- Standing With People In Support, Not Control: Training Toward Self-Reliance, Inc., Sacramento, CA (1997) by Pam Walker describes an agency in Sacramento, CA that focuses on support of parents with developmental disabilities, support for people with developmental disabilities to manage personal assistance services, and support for people in many other areas of their lives in addition to disability.
- Supports for Community Living: A Case Study (1991) by Rannveig Traustadottir is a qualitative study which examines in detail the supports provided to one individual with severe disabilities and the role this support plays in enabling him to become a part of community life.
Outside Resource Links
- Best Buddies
The mission of Best Buddies is to enhance the lives of people with mental retardation by providing opportunities for one-to-one friendships and integrated employment.
- California Alliance for Inclusive Communities, Inc. (CAIC)
“The California Alliance for Inclusive Communities, Inc. (C.A.I.C.) is a state-wide family based organization committed to advocating for high quality community-based services and supports for individuals of all ages with developmental and other related disabilities, and their family members, throughout the individual’s life span.”
- Capacity Works
Books and posters to inspire person-centered work by Dr. Beth Mount.
- The Center for an Accessible Society
Funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, The Center for An Accessible Society is designed to focus public attention on disability and independent living issues by disseminating information developed through NIDRR-funded research to promote independent living. The Center for An Accessible Society is a project of Exploding Myths, Inc., a media enterprise company.
- Center for Community Inclusion & Disability Studies
“The University of Maine Center for Community Inclusion and Disability Studies, Maine’s University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities Education, Research, and Service, is a partnership of people that brings together the resources of the community and the University to enhance the lives of individuals with disabilities and their families. We achieve our mission through interdisciplinary education, research, community service, and dissemination of information that reflect culturally competent attitudes and practices. As agents for social change, we believe in self-determination and advocacy for people with disabilities, and we are committed to community inclusion, interdependence, and the recognition of each person’s ability to contribute to society.”
- The Center for the Study and Advancement of Disability Policy (CSADP)
The Center for the Study and Advancement of Disability Policy (CSADP) provides public education, leadership development and training, technical assistance and information dissemination, and conducts action-research and analysis of public policy issues affecting individuals with disabilities and their families.
- The Center on Disability & Community Inclusion
The Center on Disability & Community Inclusion, located at The University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont, is part of a national network of developmental disabilities programs established to support individuals with disabilities and their families. The Center on Disability & Community Inclusion has adopted a conceptual framework that reflects their values, philosophy and commitment to individuals with disabilities and their families.
This is the web page of David and Faye Wetherow, who as independent facilitators and teachers, conduct planning, training and design sessions for individuals and families, government and community agencies, schools, parent associations and self-advocacy groups throughout the United States and Canada.
- The Council on Quality and Leadership
“The Council provides a continuum of services and resources that increase the effectiveness of individuals, organizations, and systems. The Council accomplishes this mission by working collaboratively with its customers and in partnership with public and private organizations to: Develop quality measures, performance indicators, and evaluation methods that are person-centered; Provide consultation, education, and other learning tools to build individual and organizational capacity; Conduct research and promote the availability of data for decision making and policy development; and Provide access to the latest information, developments, trends and best practices to consumers, their families, support and service organizations, and governmental organizations.”
- Diverse City Press Inc.
Diverse City Press Inc. produces and distributes inspiring and informational books, audio CDs and video tapes, dealing with persons with developmental disabilities, and a range of social issues. Diverse City Press aims to provide educational materials for people with disabilities and their care providers and is informed by the disability rights movement, and is closely linked with organizations and individuals fighting for the rights of all people with disabilities to take control of their own lives and control their own fate.
- Faith And Light
“Faith and Light is an international movement located in 75 countries on 5 continents comprising more than 1350 communities. This spiritual movement supports persons with developmental disabilities, their families and friends. The movement was founded in France by Jean Vanier and Marie Helene Mathieu in 1971. Although Faith and Light began in a Roman Catholic context, it has become increasingly ecumenical through the participation of members of different denominations. One of the goals of Faith and Light is to integrate its members in the churches.”
- imagine – Finding New Stories for People Who Experience Disabilities
This is the home page of David Pitonyak’s imagine. imagine is dedicated to supporting people who experience disabilities and exhibit, what some have called, “difficult behaviors.” In David’s view, what’s most needed when supporting someone who engages in difficult behaviors is imagination.
- Inclusion Press International
“Inclusion Press is a small press striving to produce readable, accessible, user-friendly books and resources about full inclusion in school, work, and community.”
- Institute for Human Development
The Institute’s mission is to improve the quality of life for persons with developmental disabilities across this entire age span by promoting community inclusion, community membership, independence, productivity, and social participation; and promoting high quality and effective community-based services and individualized supports for persons with developmental disabilities and their families.
- Institute on Community Inclusion
The Institute for Community Inclusion supports the rights of children and adults with disabilities to participate in all aspects of the community.
- Institute on Community Integration
“We believe that persons with developmental disabilities should live as valued members of our communities, receiving the services and supports they need to fully develop their potential.”
- Institute on Disability
The Institute is a University Affiliated Program (UAP) located at the University of New Hampshire that promotes full inclusion of people with disabilities in their communities.
- Indiana Institute on Disability and Community
Formerly the Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities, The Institute has long been invested in disability and community issues with a mission to improve the lives of people with disability in typical settings. The mission of the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community is to provide leadership that enables communities to include, support, and empower people with disabilities and family members. The Indiana Institute accomplishes this by promoting innovative practices, and policies that facilitate community membership.
- Issues in Developmental Disabilities
A web based distance education course providing information and insights into the lives of people with developmental disabilities, their family, friends and service providers.
- MS Central Support
This is a web site providing support and information concerning Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
- Options in Community Living
Options’ mission is to provide support and coordinate services to enable adults with developmental disabilities to live in their own homes. The agency assists people to make informed choices and reach their own goals, with support available to the extent and for as long as it is needed. Options strives to help people with disabilities, their families, and the larger community learn from one another, in order to promote mutual understanding, personal satisfaction, and fulfillment of the potential of each individual.
Paradigm is a consultancy and development agency with a difference–formed by people with a wealth of real current experience in inclusion, health, social services, community care and organisational development.
- Partners in Policymaking for Developmental Disabilities
Partners in Policymaking was created in Minnesota by the Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities in 1987. Partners is an innovative, competency based leadership training program for adults with developmental disabilities and parents of young children with disabilities. The purpose of the program is twofold: To teach best practices in disability, and to teach the competencies of influencing and communication.
QualityMall.org collects and disseminates information related to or useful in promoting quality of life for persons with developmental disabilities. It uses the format and theme of a shopping mall to help connect visitors to the best products and services available.
- The Rural Institute
The Montana University Affiliated Rural Institute on Disabilities is guided by values of independence, productivity, integration, and inclusion of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. The Institute is also home to the Research and Training Center on Rural Rehabilitation Services, whose goal is to solve problems of access to transportation and housing, employment and self-employment, independent living, health and wellness, community planning, and integration faced by people with disabilities living in rural areas and those who serve them.
- Training Resource Network (TRN)
Publisher that offers resources on the full inclusion of people with disabilities in their communities, especially on the topics of supported employment, person-centered planning, supported living, and self-determination.
- TASH (formerly The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps)
TASH is an international advocacy association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and people who work in the disability field. TASH believes that no one with a disability should be forced to live, work, or learn in a segregated setting; that all individuals deserve the right to direct their own lives. TASH’s mission is to eliminate physical and social obstacles that prevent equity, diversity, and quality of life.
- Western Connecticut Association for Human Rights (WeCAHR)
“WeCAHR advocates for the civil and human rights of people with disabilities. We are an association of families and children building communities that respect and welcome people. We educate the public consciousness and promote the understanding of human similarities.”