*INCLUSION IN EDUCATION: ISSUES AND RESOURCES

Edited by Rachael Zubal-Ruggieri and Valerie Smith, April 2003

Although not revised recently, this information package may continue to be extremely useful to people who are concerned about supports and services for people with disabilities. Please note that this information package includes reprints that we are unable to produce here on our web site. Please contact the Center on Human Policy for a complete copy of this information package or if you would like updated information on this topic.

Preparation of this information package was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), under Contract No. H133A990001 awarded to the National Resource Center on Supported Living and Choice, Center on Human Policy, School of Education, Syracuse University. The opinions expressed within are those solely of the author, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education is inferred.

  • Preface
  • Inclusive Education: An Annotated Bibliography
  • Selected Readings on Inclusive Education
    • Neary, T., & Halvorsen, A. (1996, August). What is “inclusion”? SARRC Reports. Plantation, FL: South Atlantic Regional Resource Center.
    • Kluth, P., Villa, R. A., & Thousand, J. S. (2001, December/2002, January). “Our school doesn’t offer inclusion” and other legal blunders. Educational Leadership, 59(4), 24-27.
    • Hedeen, D., & Ayres, B. J. (2002). “You want me to teach him to read?” Fulfilling the intent of IDEA. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 13(3), 180-189.
    • Voltz, D. L., Brazil, N., & Ford, A. (2001, September). What matters most in inclusive education: A practical guide for moving forward. Intervention in School and Clinic, 37(1), 23-30.
    • Schnorr, R. F. (1997). From enrollment to membership: “Belonging” in middle and high school classes. JASH, 22(1), 1-15.
  • Newsletters and E-Newsletters
  • Organizations and Projects
  • Web Sites
  • Resources on IDEA

Preface

Much progress has occurred during the past several years concerning the inclusion of students with disabilities in their home schools and classrooms. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 changed the regulations from merely providing children with disabilities access to public education to improving results for all children in our education system. It has strengthened the role of parents in educational planning and decision-making on behalf of their children, and it focuses the student’s educational planning process on promoting meaningful access to the general curriculum (OSERS, 2001).

While IDEA has been an important driving force of the progress in the inclusion of children with disabilities, recognition should also be given to the parents, educators, and many others who have had to work intensely to encourage schools to follow the law (Twenty-five years of educating children with disabilities: The good news and the work ahead, 2002).

Despite this progress, there are many who continue to struggle to advocate for the necessary (and rightful) supports to fully include all students in educational settings. They need access to crucial information to work for this to happen. Reauthorization of IDEA began in 2002 and is still underway in 2003, so now more than ever parents, educators, and others need to be informed of the ways these regulations affect them and how they may change, as well as other information that will encourage adequate enforcement of IDEA.

This information packet represents a substantial revision of the previous edition, last updated in 1993. There continues to be an enormous amount of resources available on this topic; however, this information packet is intended to provide basic information on timely subjects within inclusive education and to assist interested people in gaining better access to these materials.

First is Inclusive Education: An Annotated Bibliography, an extensive listing with resources placed into broad topical categories including:

  • CASE STUDIES AND STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSION
  • PARENTS AND FAMILIES
  • POLICY
  • PRESCHOOL RESOURCES
  • RESEARCH TEACHER AND PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES
  • THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND PHILOSOPHY

The publications reviewed here represent merely a portion of the information currently available on inclusive education.

Next, Selected Readings on Inclusive Education contains several articles. What is “Inclusion”? attempts to clarify a common definition of what inclusion is and should be, and acknowledges that until this is done, the impact of inclusive education cannot truly be determined. “Our School Doesn’t Offer Inclusion” and Other Legal Blunders highlights common misunderstandings of schools’ responsibilities under IDEA to better enable implementation. “You Want Me To Teach HIM to Read?” describes adaptations and accommodations created for one student that represent the attitudes and creativity required for inclusive education to be a success. What Matters Most in Inclusive Education: A Practical Guide for Moving Forward affirms that inclusive education is more than a physical placement and offers some practical strategies to help create a more welcoming and practical inclusive environment. Finally, From Enrollment to Membership: “Belonging” in Middle and High School reports findings about membership of students with disabilities in general education, and points out that friendships and belonging are an important part of an inclusive environment.

Next, the virtual explosion of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet has enabled many to exchange information and outreach at a level never seen before. We highlight some of these resources, especially Internet mailing lists and web sites. Also included are selected organizations and projects providing information and services concerning inclusive education. Finally, a brief listing of current resources on IDEA resources is included.

Since new resources become available almost daily and we have attempted to focus on some of the newest resources, we are unable to discuss all of the up-to-date information that is available.

Special thanks to Carol Berrigan, Doug Biklen, Claudia Stockley, Cyndy Colavita, Debbie Simms, Dianne Apter, Kim Corriveau, Zach Rossetti, Nan Songer, Pam Walker, Steve Taylor, Julia White and many others for their comments, insights and contributions to this packet.

Acknowledgement should also be given to Janet Duncan and Kathy Hulgin for their work on the previous versions of this packet.

References

OSERS. (2001, October 25). IDEA ’97: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 [Web site]. Available: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/IDEA

Twenty-five years of educating children with disabilities: The good news and the work ahead. (2001). Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum and Center on Education Policy. Available: http://64.226.111.21/subcats/ydpubs.htm or http://www.ctredpol.org/specialeducation/

Rachael Zubal-Ruggieri and Valerie Smith
Center on Human Policy, School of Education
Syracuse University
April, 2003


Inclusive Education: An Annotated Bibliography

The publications reviewed here represent merely a portion of the information currently available on inclusive education. They have been sorted into broad topical categories, and, where possible, other resources are also provided.

The categories of these resources include:

  • CASE STUDIES AND STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSION – Resources that typically report examples of “promising practices” in inclusive education as well as effective strategies, but may also include information on research, theory, and philosophy.
  • PARENTS AND FAMILIES – Publications and resources primarily authored for parents and other family members.
  • POLICY – Resources regarding important current policies, notably IDEA, IEPs, financing of inclusive education, and so forth.
  • PRESCHOOL RESOURCES – Resources focused on preschool and child care inclusion issues.
  • RESEARCH – Resources that analyze, summarize and report on current research in inclusive education.
  • TEACHER AND PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES – Resources that are geared primarily toward educators and other professionals.
  • THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND PHILOSOPHY – Resources that discuss the perspectives, theories, and issues related to inclusive education.

In some circumstances, categories may overlap, and some resources appear in more than one category. Although these resources are placed within these categories, it is possible that information included elsewhere may also be of interest, so we strongly suggest browsing every category.


CASE STUDIES AND STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSION

TITLE: Creating tomorrow’s schools today: Stories of inclusion, change, & renewal
AUTHORS: Berres, M. S., Ferguson, D. L., Knoblock, P., & Woods, C. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
New York: Teachers College Press.

“Why restructure schools so that children of all abilities can be active and contributing members of their school communities? …the complex process of creating homes within our schools for all children is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for children with disabilities, but for all members of the school community,” (p. 1) suggest the authors of this book.

This book demonstrates that the groundwork for inclusion is most successful in general education as a centerpiece of broader school restructuring. The authors examine several areas that indicate reasons for change, including the influence of political and social justice, innovative instruction and curriculum, the school as community, and personal experience. A number of examples of inclusive school communities are used by the authors to illustrate the effects of a genuine commitment to a process of change that could result in schools making equal academic efforts for all children.


TITLE: Schooling without labels: Parents, educators, and inclusive education
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Starting with the question, “is there any place within the culture where integration already exists such that we could study it, learn from it, and apply principles from it to schools and other social settings?” Biklen closely examines the experiences of six families whose children with disabilities are full participants in family life.

Using the experiences of these families, Biklen outlines ways people with disability labels are included and valued in day-to-day settings. However, contradictions exist between the ways these individuals are constructed and supported through social policy and practice, and ways they are constructed and supported in family life. This book illustrates ways the principles of inclusion can be extended beyond family life to schools, community, and other social institutions.


TITLE: At the end of the day: Lessons learned in inclusive education
AUTHORS: Grenot-Scheyer, M., Fisher, M., & Staub, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

At the End of the Day examines lessons learned from implementing inclusive education through examples from students, parents, teachers, and communities.

The book begins with a conceptual framework for inclusion. Subsequent chapters contain case studies, including one chapter involving a preschool-age child just entering into the school system, and one concerning a teenager preparing to transition out of high school and into whatever lies ahead in his life. These two chapters are of interest because they represent opposite ends of a child’s journey through the education system. Finally, the authors recount what worked (and what didn’t) for these children and look to the future as an opportunity for improvement.


TITLE: Each Belongs
AUTHOR: Hansen, J.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: n.d.
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This book examines the “Each Belongs” program of Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board in Hamilton, Ontario. The book first details the extensive 30-year history of “Each Belongs,” including committee reports, lists of personnel, policy statements, letters and other documents. Hansen then details the “Reality” in a section that contains reflections and experiences on inclusion by parents, teachers, and administrators in the form of letters and essays. The final section, “Reason,” discusses why inclusion and the work of “Each Belongs” is important.

The author notes in his foreword that “Each Belongs must be more than a slogan” and that this book is not meant to be scholarly but rather a story of what works, “reflecting the pride and joy of many.”


TITLE: Cultural diversity, families and the special education system
AUTHOR: Harry, B.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
New York: Teachers College Press.

This book presents the parent perspective on the special education process and offers a broad understanding of some of the cultural issues and disadvantages that come into play when families become involved in the special education system. The book is based on in-depth study of 12 Puerto-Rican American families and their experiences and perspectives related to the educational system.


TITLE: Turning points: The story of high school inclusion in New Hampshire
AUTHORS: Jorgensen, C. M., & Tashie, C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
In J. Nisbet & D. Hagner (Eds.), Part of the community: Strategies for including everyone (pp. 131-176). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This chapter recounts the story of high school inclusion in New Hampshire and the work of the Institute on Disability (IOD) at the University of New Hampshire.

The authors begin by recounting the time before any students with disabilities were included in any general education classes. Next, they provide insight into the IOD’s effectiveness as a change agent by focusing on local schools’ inclusion histories, including both good and bad stories. Finally, the authors describes the systems change process and strategies for the future.

The authors affirm that “IOD’s goal is to learn from the past, respond to the needs of today’s students and families, and build New Hampshire schools’ capacity to be true inclusive communities of learners” (p. 131).


TITLE: The inclusion papers: Strategies to make inclusion work, A collection of articles from the Centre for Integrated Education and Community
AUTHORS: Pearpoint, J., Forest, M., & Snow, J.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997 (Third printing)
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This collection contains an introduction by Susan and William Stainback, 31 short articles related to school and community inclusion, several reproducible overheads, and a final section about the collection authors. Other authors include Bob Williams, Patrick Mackan and Rosalyn Cormier, Rosemary Deeley (with Pearpoint and Forest), Yves Talbot (also with Pearpoint and Forest), Gary Bunch, and Jim Paladino.

The collection covers a number of inclusion-related topics and includes position papers, poetry, illustrations, stories, descriptions of MAPS, PATHS, and Circles of Support in action, and a wealth of other interesting, amusing, and helpful information. Although this is the third printing (the second occurred in 1993), The Inclusion Papers continues to be timely and relevant to issues currently on the minds of those who support inclusive schools and communities.


TITLE: Building cultural reciprocity with families: Case studies in special education
AUTHORS: Harry, B., Kalyanpur, M., & Day, M.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 1999
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

This book is a companion to Culture in Special Education: Building Reciprocal Family-Professional Relationships, and provides case studies of eight families of children with disabilities who are from cultural minorities. The first section outlines the authors’ “posture of cultural reciprocity” that was presented as the final section of their previous book. Detailed chapter-length case studies of each family follow, illustrating applications of the posture of cultural reciprocity. The families featured in this book were participants in a four-year research project funded by the US Department of Education and that involved five universities studying “the effective inclusion of children with moderate to severe disabilities into the mainstream of the social life experienced by their peers and families”(p. xii).


OTHER CASE STUDIES AND STRATEGIES FOR INCLUSION:

  • Berrigan, C. (1995). Schools in Italy: A national policy made actual. TASH Newsletter, 20&21(12&1), 24-27.
  • Cooper, C., Frattura, E., & Keyes, M. W. (2000). Meeting the needs of ALL abilities: How leaders go beyond inclusion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing.
  • Davern, L., & Schnorr, R. (1991). Public schools welcome students with disabilities as full members. Children Today, 20(2), 21-25.
  • Dillon, A. D., Tashie, C., Schuh, M., Jorgensen, C. M., Shapiro-Bernard, S., Dixon, B., & Nisbet, J. (1993). Treasures: A celebration of inclusion. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • Ferguson, D.L., & Meyer, G. (2001, May). Schools on the move: Stories of urban schools engaged in inclusive journeys of change: Benito Martinez Elementary School, El Paso, Texas. Denver: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm
  • Ferguson, D., & Meyer, G. (2001, December). Schools on the move: Stories of urban schools engaged in inclusive journeys of change: Kepner Middle School, Denver, CO. Denver: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm
  • Ferguson, P., & Blumberg, R. (2001, December). Schools on the move: Stories of urban schools engaged in inclusive journeys of change: JC Nalle Elementary School, Washington, D.C. Denver: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm
  • Fisher, D., Saz, C., & Pumpian, I. (1999). Inclusive high schools: Learning from contemporary classrooms. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Sax, C. (2000). Inclusive elementary schools: Recipes for success. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Hammeken, P. A. (2000). Inclusion: 450 strategies for success – A practical guide for all educators working in inclusionary settings. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications.
  • Hartsig, J. C. (1999). There’s another school in Littleton. Fellowship, 65(11-12), 21. Nyack, NY: Fellowship for Reconciliation.
  • Inclusion in New York: An inside view. (1994). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.
  • Kennedy, C. H., & Fisher, D. (2001). Inclusive middle schools. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Kingsley, J., & Levitz, M. (1994). Count us in: Growing up with Down syndrome. San Diego: Harcourt Brace.
  • Nickels, C. (1996). A gift from Alex – The art of belonging: Strategies for academic and social inclusion. In L. K. Koegel, R. L. Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Kochhar, C. A., West, L. L., & Taymans, J. M. (2000). Successful inclusion: Practical strategies for a shared responsibility. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
  • Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L. & Dunlap, G. (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Mandlawitz, M. (2003, February). A tale of 3 cities: Urban perspectives on special education. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy. Available online: http://www.ctredpol.org/
  • Payzant, T., & Durkin, P. (2001, April). Districts on the move: Unified Student Service in Boston Public Schools: Building a continuum of services through standard-based reform. Denver: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm
  • Pearpoint, J., O’Brien, J., Forest, J., & Forest, M. (1995). PATH: A workbook for planning positive possible futures. Toronto: Inclusion Press.
  • Schnorr, R., Black, & Davern, L. (2000, March). Restructuring high schools to include all students: Lessons learned. High School Magazine, 7(7), 10-15.
  • Schnorr, R., Matott, E., & Paetow, M. (2000, January). Building-based change: One school’s journey toward full inclusion. Middle School Journal, 31(3), 44-52.
  • Severson, S. J., & Anderson, K. (1995). Inclusion strategies for learners with severe disabilities. Minnesota: Practical Press.
  • Working Forum on Inclusive Schools. (1994). Creating schools for all our students: What 12 schools have to say. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

PARENTS AND FAMILIES

TITLE: Negotiating the special education maze: A guide for parents and teachers (3rd ed.).
AUTHORS: Anderson, W., Chitwood, S., & Hayden, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Whether you are a parent who has just been informed your child qualifies for special education services or the parent of an older child already included in the school system, this guide will be helpful in addressing the questions and concerns parents and advocates may have as they begin to face a great deal of confusing information and jargon.

This revised edition includes current legislation that affects the education of children with disabilities, including how Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 can help cover services not covered by IDEA, and how parents can use the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to benefit their school-aged children.

Also included is information on the provision of Part H of the Reauthorization of IDEA serving infants and toddlers with disabilities (usually referred to as early intervention), as well as an Appendix that notes the specific changes in IDEA that occurred in 1997.


TITLE: Schooling without labels: Parents, educators, and inclusive education
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Starting with the question, “is there any place within the culture where integration already exists such that we could study it, learn from it, and apply principles from it to schools and other social settings?” Biklen closely examines the experiences of six families whose children with disabilities are full participants in family life.

Using the experiences of these families, Biklen outlines ways people with disability labels are included and valued in day-to-day settings. However, contradictions exist between the ways these individuals are constructed and supported through social policy and practice, and ways they are constructed and supported in family life. This book illustrates ways the principles of inclusion can be extended beyond family life to schools, community, and other social institutions.


TITLE: All my life’s a circle – Using the tools: Circles, MAPS & PATHS, New and expanded
AUTHORS: Falvey, M. A., Forest, M., Pearpoint, J., & Rosenberg, R. L.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: July, 2000
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This manual presents three tools that help individuals with (and without) disabilities build their desired futures. Circles of Support is a method that gathers groups of people together who work to enhance the focus person’s social network. It begins with a visual representation of a person’s social connections. MAPS, or Making Action Plans, is a tool that helps individuals and their supporters, through a series of eight key questions, create a picture of their desired future and a plan of action to reach that future. PATH, or Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope, was developed from MAPS as a planning process that begins with the person’s dream and “plans backwards.”

The authors provide detailed descriptions of each step of each method, and graphic and written examples from related meetings that illustrate each method. The expanded section contains a video transcript of one of the author’s MAPS meeting, an article by Judith Snow on dreaming a desirable future, and eleven articles on inclusion, person-centered planning, and the three featured methods. Discussions of each method and the supporting materials are presented in a format that is easy to use.


TITLE: Cultural diversity, families and the special education system
AUTHOR: Harry, B.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
New York: Teachers College Press.

This book presents the parent perspective on the special education process and offers a broad understanding of some of the cultural issues and disadvantages that come into play when families become involved in the special education system. The book is based on in-depth study of 12 Puerto-Rican American families and their experiences and perspectives related to the educational system.


TITLE: When it’s your own child: A report on special education from the families who use it
AUTHORS: Johnson, J., & Duffett, A., with Farkas, S., & Wilson, L.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Public Agenda
6 East 39 Street
New York, NY 10016
(212) 686-6610
Fax: 212-889-3461
http://www.publicagenda.org/

This report recounts the results of a telephone survey with parents of special needs funded by The Annie E. Casey Foundation, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, and The 21st Century Schools Project at the Progressive Policy Institute.

This survey was conducted in an attempt to learn whether or not parents believe that the special education system, as it is now structured, is effectively serving them and their children. It was also used to recount their experiences critiques of special education.

The survey details findings in six categories: Families Who Believe They Need Help; Caring Teachers, Responsive Schools; Special Education Today; Mixed Views on Academics and Standards; A Vocal and Frustrated Minority; and Do Special Education’s Critics Have a Point.

The authors of this survey wanted to add parents’ perspectives and experiences to the current debate today concerning the special education system. They recognize that these perspectives and findings are crucial for policymakers to have in making their decisions concerning the special education system, especially the current reauthorization of IDEA.


TITLE: Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization
AUTHOR: Quill, K. A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1995
Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Publishers, Inc.

This book, edited by Kathleen Quinn, provides educators, students, and families with a framework to think about ongoing efforts to promote communication and socialization for students with autism, and contains case studies in each major section. In describing autism and the unique learning style of many people with autism, Kathleen Quill has included strategies and instructional adaptations for enhancing communication and supporting socialization that are sensitive and sensible. The authors not only look at the communication and socialization of children with autism, but also factor in the complexity of special education systems, parent desires, and professional responsibility.

The layout of this book makes it easy to use. There are key terms in the margins, tables are easy to read, and each chapter has both a summary and comprehensive support references.


TITLE: Special education mediation: A guide for parents
AUTHORS: The Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers and The Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: n.d.
Minneapolis, MN & Eugene, OR: Authors.
Available online:
http://www.directionservice.org/cadre/ParentBooklet.cfm

Mediation is a flexible way to resolve disagreements between schools or early intervention (EI) systems and the parents of children with disabilities. An impartial person, called a mediator, helps parents, educators and service providers to communicate more effectively and develop a written document that contains the details of their agreement.

This brief booklet, intended especially for parents and family members, provides an overview of the mediation process. Information on the benefits of mediation and how to prepare for mediation is included.


TITLE: Creating an inclusive school
AUTHORS: Villa, R. A., & Thousand, J. S. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1995
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
1250 N. Pitt Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
http://www.ascd.org

Villa and Thousand have edited a number of books on inclusive education, and this one is a real asset for teachers, parents and members of the community. The first chapter describes the basics of inclusion and presents several perspectives on the meanings of inclusive education. This is followed by a short chapter written by a “regular parent” of a child in school, who documents his conversation with his son who notices a peer with a disability being removed from his classroom. An historical perspective of inclusive education is also given, as well as a description of the philosophy and rationale for creating inclusive schools.

This book contains several interesting chapters written by parents and teachers of children with disabilities that bring the philosophy described by the professionals to life. In addition, the chapter by a person with a disability presents an important but often overlooked perspective. There are several chapters on adapting curriculum to the needs of all students and planning for change to an inclusive school. A chapter outlining questions that teachers, administrators and parents may have on creating an inclusive school is also included, and the authors share advice and resources related to this topic.


TITLE: Wrightslaw: Special education law
AUTHORS: Wright, P. W. D., & Wright, P. D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1999
Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law Press, Inc.

This book serves as a resource for the parents, educators, advocates and attorneys who are advocating for children with disabilities to help them fully understand the regulations, laws, requirements and many other details related to the right of all children to a free and appropriate education. Included are texts of key laws and regulations with commentary and analysis that are of tremendous benefit because they are not bogged down with jargon. Sections are divided into law and special education law, special education and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, civil rights and discrimination, records and confidentiality, and case law.


TITLE: From emotions to advocacy: The special education survival guide
AUTHORS: Wright, P., & Wright, P.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law Press, Inc.

From Emotions to Advocacy (or “FETA” in the authors’ term) seeks to guide parents in the process of advocating for their child with a disability. This book helps to make the mountains of forms, meetings, regulars and other things more manageable by providing strategies and suggestions to parents. Sample letters and forms are included, as well as glossaries and contacts to assist parents to fully understand and plan the advocacy process. The authors have also developed an extensive companion web site (www.feta.com) referred to continually throughout the text that contains web links to related sites.


TITLE: Your child’s IEP: Practical and legal guidance for parents
AUTHORS: Wright, P. D., & Wright, P. W. D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: (1999).
Available online: http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep_guidance.html

This article was written specifically for parents to help guide them through IEP meetings. The authors emphasize the importance of a parent’s role in the education of their child and explains the IEP process in a way that uses less educational and legal jargon.


OTHER RESOURCES FOR PARENTS AND FAMILIES

  • Cooper, C., Frattura, E., & Keyes, M. W. (2000). Meeting the needs of students of ALL abilities: How leaders go beyond inclusion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing.
  • Gruskin, S., & Silverman, K., with Bright, V. (1997, April). Including your child. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/Including
  • Jorgensen, C. M. (1998). Restructuring high school for all students: Taking inclusion to the next level. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • NICHCY News Digest: Planning for inclusion, 5(1). (1995, June). Washington, DC: Author. Available online: http://nichcy.org/pubs/newsdig/nd24.htm
  • Moore, L. O. (2000). Inclusion: A practical guide for parents – Tools to enhance your child’s learning. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications.
  • Lehr, S. (1995). Supporting families: Accepting families as they are. Network, 4(3), 46-51.
  • PACER Center, Inc. (1999). Understanding the special education process: An overview for parents. Minneapolis: Author. Available online: http://www.fape.org/pubs/FAPE-10%20Understanding%20Process.pdf (also available in Spanish, Somali, and Hmong)
  • Ryndak, D. L., Downing, J. E., Jacqueline, L. R., & Morrison, A. P. (1995). Parents’ perceptions after inclusion of their children with moderate or severe disabilities. JASH, 20(2), 147-157.
  • Rebhorn, T., & Takemoto, C. (1995). Unlocking the door: A parent’s guide to inclusive education. Reston, VA: Parent Educational Advocacy Training Center.
  • Reyler, A. B., & Buswell, B. E. (2001). Individual education plan: Involved effective parents. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Tidwell, N. R. (2002). One child at a time: A parent handbook and resource directory for African American families with children who learn differently. Columbus, OH: National Association for the Education of African American Children with Learning Disabilities. Available online: http://www.charityadvantage.com/aacld

POLICY

TITLE: Twenty-five years of educating students with disabilities: The good news and the work ahead
AUTHORS: American Youth Policy Forum and Center on Educational Policy
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Available online: http://www.aypf.org/publications/special_ed/Special_Ed.pdf or http://www.ctredpol.org/specialeducation/25yearseducatingchildren.pdf

This report provides detailed information reviewed by the American Youth Policy Forum and the Center on Education Policy on how far we’ve come in educating children with disabilities. Using a variety of statistics, the results, broadly summarized, state that after 25 years, much progress has been made, but there is still a lot of work to be done. This report hopes to usher in another 25 years of progressive educational policies and practices.


TITLE: Negotiating the special education maze: A guide for parents and teachers (3rd ed.).
AUTHORS: Anderson, W., Chitwood, S., & Hayden, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Whether you are a parent who has just been informed your child qualifies for special education services or the parent of an older child already included in the school system, this guide will be helpful in addressing the questions and concerns parents and advocates may have as they begin to face a great deal of confusing information and jargon.

This revised edition includes current legislation that affects the education of children with disabilities, including how Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 can help cover services not covered by IDEA, and how parents can use the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to benefit their school-aged children.

Also included is information on the provision of Part H of the Reauthorization of IDEA serving infants and toddlers with disabilities (usually referred to as early intervention), as well as an Appendix that notes the specific changes in IDEA that occurred in 1997.


TITLE: Achieving the complete school: Strategies for effective mainstreaming
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1985
New York: Teachers College Press.

This is one of the earliest books to clearly examine principles and strategies for successful inclusion of students into regular classrooms in neighborhood schools. Separate chapters address the roles of several different team participants (district special education administrator, school building principal, teacher, and parents) and illustrates ways that each group becomes “more effective when it understands the basic nature of the other groups’ roles.” Co-authors of specific chapters include Robert Bogdan, Stanford J. Searl, Jr., Steven J. Taylor, and Dianne Ferguson.

Areas examined include not only special education/regular education issues, such as principles for curriculum planning, but also the basic aspects of organization and change that make inclusion work. Case studies illustrate the complexities involved in inclusion, the relationship of the process to the culture of schools, and the many critical issues affecting the integration of special and regular education.

Based on the experiences of scores of administrators, teachers, and parents, the material in Achieving the Complete School was drawn from two extensive studies funded by the National Institute of Education and the U.S. Department of Education carried out simultaneously over three years. Achieving the Complete School continues to be a classic text concerning inclusive education.


TITLE: A timely IDEA: Rethinking federal education programs for children with disabilities
AUTHOR: Center on Education Policy
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.
Available online at: http://www.cep-dc.org/specialeducation/timelyidea2002.pdf or http://www.cep-dc.org/specialeducation/timelyidea2002.htm

The Center on Education Policy asked three experts in special education to advise on whether and how IDEA should be changed. These three, Tom Hehir, Lawrence Gloeckler, and Margaret McLaughlin, first profess different attitudes about changing IDEA and the extent of such changes, but they also agree on larger issues facing special education and propose common solutions. The common problems all identify and address are: (1) academic improvement; (2) paperwork and complexity; and (3) funding. Other problems are briefly discussed (i.e., overrepresentation of minorities in special education, discipline issues, etc.) and solutions for those are suggested.


TITLE: Rethinking special education for a new century
AUTHORS: Finn, C. E., Rotherham, A. J, & Hokanson, Jr., C. R. (Eds.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: May, 2001
Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation and the Progressive Policy Institute.

This is a large volume of essays that seeks to reform special education by recognizing problems occurring in special education over the years, analyzing their causes, and suggesting a range of possible solutions. The editors created this volume to stimulate discussion and debate for the reauthorization of IDEA in 2002. This volume addresses the progress of IDEA over the past 25 years, but reminds readers that there are still things that need to change. The editors indicate particular policy failures that need attention, and offer specific principles for reform. The volume is divided into three sections: Special Education History and Issues; Special Education in Practice; and Moving Forward . Also included are chapter highlights and a Foreword by Madeline Will, former Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education Services, U.S. Department of Education.


TITLE: A guide to the Individualized Education Program
AUTHORS: Küpper, L. (Ed.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: July, 2000
Jessup, MD: ED Pubs.
Available online: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Products/IEP_Guide/

Developed by the U.S. Department of Education with the assistance of the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), this guide explains the IEP process for parents, teachers, and others. The following topics are briefly discussed in defining and explaining the IEP process: The Basic Special Education Process Under IDEA; The Contents Of An IEP; The IEP Team Members; Writing The IEP; Deciding Placement; After The IEP Is Written; Implementing The IEP; Reviewing And Revising The IEP; What If Parents Don’t Agree With The IEP; and a Summary. Of interest are some subtopics, included in separate boxes throughout the guide, that consider things such as how IEPs differ from state-to-state, and discussions of related services. A sample IEP form with annotations from the regulations is included, as well as a list of resources and an attachment presenting the IDEA regulations for IEPs.


TITLE: Alternate assessment: Measuring outcomes and supports for students with disabilities
AUTHORS: Kleinert, H. L., & Farmer Kearns, J., with invited contributors
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

IDEA ’97 has required that states develop alternative assessments for students who cannot participate in large-scale, general assessments, even with accommodations (p. 9). Assessments are crucial in determining how students demonstrate what they know and can do, and the authors seek to help raise standards and expectations for all students. This book begins by discussing the broad historical development of alternative assessments and essential questions that guide their development. Authors consider alternate assessments from the perspective of teachers, students, and families. Other topics include: a process for designing IEPs linked to state learning standards for all students; how state standards can be used to guide the curriculum process; a series of examples across elementary, middle, and high school to show how students with significant disabilities can participate in instructional activities that address individualized objectives and at the same time provide performance data essential to alternative assessment; strategies for integrating alternative assessments into both individualized planning and ongoing instruction; a conceptual framework for structuring alternate assessments to teach students self-determination; how technology can be used to both enhance student learning and build capacity of alternative assessment to fully “capture” learning voices of teachers and families are included, especially regarding social relationships and friendships as instrumental educational outcomes as well as information on documentation of student performance across environments.

Finally, the authors present research findings on a core set of criteria that should be used to evaluate alternate assessment, teachers’ perceptions of alternate assessments, and what is known to date about the impact of alternate assessment. The authors note that there are topics regarding alternate assessment that they do not discuss, those of which are mainly related to policy, especially since the issues of alternate assessment related to policy are ongoing and emergent and the answers are very state-specific.


TITLE: All kids count: Including students with disabilities in statewide assessment programs
AUTHORS: Landau, J. K., Vohs, J. R., & Romano, C. A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
PEER Project
Federation for Children with Special Needs
95 Berkeley Street, Suite 104
Boston, MA 02116

This monograph serves as a basic primer concerning the participation of students with disabilities in statewide assessment systems. It reports results of a state-by-state survey conducted by the Parents Engaged in Education Reform (PEER) Project. Statewide assessments are of great significance to students with disabilities because they hold schools accountable for the education of all students, and this importance has been reaffirmed by the signing of the IDEA Amendments in 1997 that requires the inclusion of all students in assessments. Assessments quite often are the start of efforts to improve education and the participation of students with disabilities is needed for them to be of any benefit. Contents of this report include an Executive Summary; survey results and state profiles; a discussion of key issues regarding implementation and policy related to statewide assessment; samples of accommodations; an information brief on the issues of statewide assessment and reform; a glossary of terms; and contact information for state education departments and parents centers.


TITLE: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Reauthorization: Where do we really stand?
AUTHOR: National Council on Disability
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: July, 2002
Available online: http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/
synthesis_07-05-02.html
or
http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/pdf/
synthesis_07-05-02.pdf

This report discusses four areas of concern to the implementation of IDEA: eligibility and over-representation of racial and ethnic minorities; funding; monitoring and enforcement; and discipline. This paper reviews two years of public proceedings and provides statements from public meetings, summaries of issues, and questions related to each of the four areas of concern.


TITLE: Whole school success and inclusive education: Building partnerships for learning, achievement, and accountability
AUTHOR: Sailor, W. (Ed.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
New York: Teachers College Press.

This book discusses inclusion of students with disabilities with a particular emphasis on entire (or “whole”) school improvement, and themes concerning the commonalties between the services and supports that schools may provide and those provided and improved upon by communities and society at large. The book is divided into four parts. Part I focuses on inclusion and forming partnerships from a public policy standpoint. Part II examines the formation the collaborative partnerships, especially in terms of helping families, the future of integrating services, and the transition from school to work. Part III focuses on inclusive teaching practices, including supports for regular and special educators, paraprofessionals, and other service personnel. Finally, Part IV discusses the future of collaboration, especially in terms of financing inclusive education and in teacher preparation.


TITLE: Medicaid and special education: Coordination of services for children with disabilities is evolving (GAO/HEHS-00-20)
AUTHORS: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Washington, DC: GAO.
Available online: http://www.gao.gov/archive/2000/he00020.pdf

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and Medicaid have the potential to offer various services and equipment that can be critical to the educational development and physical well-being of children with disabilities. In 1999, while the Act provided school districts with $4.3 billion to help make special education and related services available to all students with disabilities, some of the costs of services provided to poor children under the act could have been covered by Medicaid. Although Medicaid is traditionally the payer of last resort for health care services, since 1988 Medicaid has been required to reimburse for medically necessary services provided to eligible children under the IDEA. It is required to coordinate IDEA with other federal programs, such as Medicaid, to finance and deliver services to children with disabilities. However, because the boundaries of operation for the act and Medicare are unclear, concerns have arisen about coordination between these two programs. This report (1) describes how Medicaid and IDEA interact to meet the needs of poor school-aged children with disabilities and (2) identifies issues that have arisen in coordinating services provided by Medicare and IDEA in schools.


OTHER POLICY RESOURCES:

  • Cooper, C., Frattura, E., & Keyes, M. W. (2000). Meeting the needs of students of ALL abilities: How leaders go beyond inclusion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing.
  • Gryphon, M., & Salisbury, D. (2002). Escaping IDEA: Freeing parents, teachers, and students through deregulation and choice [Cato Policy Analysis No. 444]. Washington, DC: The Cato Institute. Available online: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-444es.html
  • Hayes, N. (2000). Section 504: It is not “unfounded” special education. Seattle: New Horizons for Learning. Available online: http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/inclusion/law/hayes3.htm
  • Lipsky, D. K., & Gartner, A. (1997). Inclusion and school reform: Transforming America’s classrooms. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Martin, R. (1991). Extraordinary children, ordinary lives: Stories behind special education case law. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
  • McDonnell, L. M., McLaughlin, M. J., & Morison, P. (Eds.). (1997). Educating one and all: Students with disabilities and standards-based reform. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available online: http://www.nap.edu/
  • National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities. (1999, September). NICHCY Briefing Paper LG2: Individualized education programs (4th ed). Washington, DC: Author. Available online: http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/otherpub/lg2.htm
  • Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education. (2000, July). A guide to the Individualized Education Program. Washington, DC: Author. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/IEP_Guide/
  • Paul, J. L., Berger, N. H., Osnes, P. G., Martinez, Y. G., & Morse, W. C. (Eds.). (1997). Ethics and decision making in local schools: Inclusion, policy, and reform. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • PEAK Parent Center & San Diego State University. (2001). The IEP: A tool for realizing possibilities [Video]. Colorado Springs: Author.
  • PEAK Parent Center & San Diego State University. (2001). El IEP: Un instrumento valioso para realizar las posibilidade [Video]. Colorado Springs: Author.
  • People For The American Way & Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund. (2003). Jeopardizing a legacy: A closer look at IDEA and Florida’s disability voucher program. Washington, DC & Berkeley, CA: Authors. Available online: http://www.pfaw.org/pfaw/general/default.aspx?oid=9063
  • Peterson, M. (2000, April). Whole schooling: Linking inclusive education to school renewal. TASH Newsletter, 26(4),10-12.
  • President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education (PCESE) (2001, July). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Available online: http://www.ed.gov/inits/commissionsboards/whspecialeducation/index.html
  • Seyler, A. B., & Buswell, B. E. (2001). Individual education plan: Involved effective parents. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Shapiro, S., Tashie, C., Dillon, A. D., Schuh, M., Jorgensen, C. M., Dixon, B., & Nisbet, J. (1993). The lighter side of IEPs. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • Turnbull, H. R., & Turnbull, A. (2000). Free appropriate public education: The law and children with disabilities (6th ed.). Denver: Love Publishing Company.

PRESCHOOL RESOURCES

TITLE: Creating inclusive classrooms
AUTHORS: Daniels, E. R., & Stafford, K.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1999
Washington, DC: Children’s Resources International, in partnership with The Open Society Institute.

Developed as part of the Step by Step Program, this manual has been created for those designing and implementing inclusive programs for young children (three to six). This manual presents the stories of three young children that are based on the real life experiences of children, their parents, and their teachers. The manual is divided into three sections: Creating Inclusive Classrooms; Meeting Individual Needs; and Facilitating Learning in Inclusive Classrooms.


TITLE: Teaching our youngest: A guide for preschool teachers and child care and family providers
AUTHORS: Early Childhood-Head Start Task Force
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Describing experiences that promote childhood learning from birth through age five, this booklet for preschool teachers and child care providers draws from research to discuss ways to help children to develop their language abilities, become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, recognize numbers, and learn to count.


TITLE: Adapting curriculum & instruction in inclusive early childhood classrooms
AUTHORS: Frazeur-Cross, A., & Dixon, S. D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Center for Innovative Practices for Young Children.

This manual is very similar to the manual in inclusive classrooms (see section on page 36 of this annotated bibliography), except that it focuses on inclusive settings for children with disabilities in preschool settings. The authors provide conceptual models and a range of activities, ideas, and samples to help teachers create welcoming, inclusive preschool classrooms, and encourage teachers to apply their own professional knowledge and skills to make adaptations that work for every student.


TITLE: Welcoming all children: Creating inclusive child care
AUTHORS: Freeman, T., Hutter-Pishgahi, L., & Traub, E.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
Bloomington, IN & Indianapolis, IN: Early Childhood Center, Indiana Institute on Disability and Community, Indiana University-Bloomington & The Indiana Parent Information Network, Inc. (IPIN).

This booklet presents child care providers with information that will help them support inclusive child care. It is divided into the following sections: Benefits of Inclusive Child Care (benefits for children and families, child care professionals, and the community); Inclusive Practices (what you can do to be more inclusive); Preparing for a New Child (learning about the needs of kids with disabilities); Using Your Creativity (using child development knowledge and creativity to accommodate children with individual needs); Bringing in the Team (getting help to achieve success); and Additional Resources (including national organizations, libraries and publishers, funding for other resources and the Internet). Welcoming All Children is a valuable resource for child care providers and others that emphasizes children, families, child care providers and the community are all rewarded by supporting inclusion. A 25-minute companion video is also available.


TITLE: Sourcebook for teaching assistants in early childhood education
AUTHOR: Shelton, G. (Ed.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
Center for Disability Information and Referral (CeDIR)
Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities
The University Affiliated Program of Indiana
Indiana University-Bloomington
2853 East Tenth Street
Bloomington, IN 47408-2601

This manual was created for paraprofessionals to gain the skills required for working effectively with students, families, and other school personnel. While this guidebook has been created primarily for use in college courses on early childhood education, it is also valuable as a staff development resource. Chapters include: The “I” Team; Family/School Partnership: a Parent’s Perspective; Quality Early Childhood Programs; Confidentiality; Children’s Development Birth Through Age Six; Behavior Guidance Through Positive Programming; The Development of Social Interaction Skills; Cognitive Development; Enhancing Communication Skills; Motor Development; and Overview of Self-Care Skills. There are also appendices including several fact sheets on disabilities.


TITLE: IDEA requirements for preschoolers with disabilities: Challenging behaviors
AUTHORS: Walsh, S., Smith, B. J., & Taylor, R. C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000, September
Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Available online: http://www.ideapractices.org/resources/files/PreschoolersChallenging
Behavior.pdf

This document is an excerpt from the guide, IDEA Requirements for Preschoolers with Disabilities: IDEA Early Childhood Policy and Practice Guide. Produced by the Division for Early Childhood (DEC), a division of The Council for Exceptional Children, and supported by the ASPIIRE IDEA Partnership Project, this excerpt focuses specifically on questions related to young children with disabilities who display challenging behaviors in a variety of early childhood settings. The guide addresses IDEA ’97 discipline provisions under Part B as they relate to children ages 3 through 5 years old and their families. The document is formatted in a Q & A format, and can be used as a stand-alone resource or in combination with other materials.


OTHER PRESCHOOL RESOURCES:

  • Cavallaro, C. C., & Haney, M. (1999). Preschool inclusion. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Chandler, P. A. (1994). A place for me: Including children with special needs in early care and education settings. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).
  • Child care in the neighborhood. (1995). San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders.
  • Janko, S., & Porter, A. (1997, March). Portraits of inclusion through the eyes of children, families, and educators. Seattle: The Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion. Available online: http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/inclusion/portraits_of_inclusion/
  • front_poi.htm.
  • Moore, L. O. (1997). Inclusion: Strategies for working with young children – A resource guide for teachers, childcare providers, and parents. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Nelson, D., & Dillon, A. (1996). Preschool: Benefits are forever. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • O’Brien, M. (1997). Inclusive child care for infants and toddlers: Meeting individual and special needs. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Sandall, S. R., & Schwartz, I. S., with Joseph, G. E., Chou, H., Horn, E. M., Lieberr, J., Odu, S. L., & Wolery, R. (2002). Building blocks for teaching preschoolers with special needs. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Soodak, L. C., & Erwin, E. (2000). Valued members or tolerated participant: Parents’ experiences in inclusive early childhood settings. JASH, 25(1), 29-4.
  • Van den Pol, R., Guidry, J., & Keeley, B. (Eds.). (1995). Creating the inclusive preschool: Strategies for a successful program. San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders.
  • Wolery, M., & Wilbers, J. S. (Eds.). (1994). Including children with special needs in early childhood programs. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).

RESEARCH

TITLE: Constructing inclusion: Lessons from critical, disability narratives
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
International Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(4), 337-353.

Drawing from critical disability narratives, including disability studies works, autobiographies and school age students’ commentaries, the author discusses how school inclusion might be expanded to reflect disability voices. The analysis focuses on inclusion primarily as it concerns students with developmental disabilities such as autism, cerebral palsy, and Down syndrome, and addresses how, in light of lessons from critical disability narratives, students with these disabilities might experience fuller academic as well as social inclusion. Four themes drawn from disability narratives are discussed: (1) resisting static understandings of disability; (2) creating and finding contexts for experiencing competence; (3) learning to recognize and resist normate narratives of disability; and (4) honoring the experience of disability. The paper suggests a series of assumptions and principles for practicing inclusion that arguably can be derived from critical disability narratives.


TITLE: Inclusion: Recent research
AUTHORS: Bunch, G., & Valeo, A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Toronto, Ontario: Inclusion Press.

The authors review available literature that discusses benefits of inclusive education, and those that discuss strategies that support the education of all students in the general classroom. The book’s 12 chapters include articles on teacher attitudes, children and parent attitudes, socialization, academics, behavior, paraprofessionals, models of inclusive education, collaboration, instructional strategies, and the authors’ final thoughts. Each research article is summarized, and Bunch and Valeo provide a “final word” to each that points to elements of particular interest within each study. The authors clearly state that their intent in compiling this book is not to debate the merits of inclusive education; rather, they focus on research that helps further inclusion as, in the authors’ words, “sound educational practice.”


TITLE: The foundations of inclusive education: A compendium of articles on effective strategies to achieve inclusive education
AUTHORS: Fisher, D., & Ryndak, D. L. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
TASH
29 West Susquehanna Avenue, Suite 210
Baltimore, MD, 21204

This book, a series of articles originally published in the Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (JASH), address issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities in typical classrooms. A foreword by Steven J. Taylor introduces the philosophical underpinnings that inform inclusive education, and makes a case for the need for research that informs practice and for clearer descriptions of inclusive practices. The book is divided into four sections, each containing a number of related articles:

  • From Least Restrictive Environment to Inclusion: Conceptual Underpinnings and Overriding Issues – This section includes articles that relate to the underlying concepts of inclusive education from the perspective of parents, teachers, students, and professionals.
  • Perceptions of Inclusion and Attitudes Toward Students with Disabilities – This section includes articles from the perspective of peers of students with disabilities.
  • From Facilitation of Social Interactions to Belongingness: A Change of Focus – This section contains articles that address issues of membership in school social communities.
  • Strategies that Facilitate Inclusion – This section includes articles that offer a variety of practical strategies related to including students with disabilities in typical classrooms.

NOTE: There is now a second edition available. Please visit www.tash.org for more information.


TITLE: Inclusive schooling practices: Pedagogical and research foundations
AUTHORS: McGregor, G., & Vogelsang, R. T.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998, February
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This monograph summarizes a variety of literature about promising practices in including students with disabilities. This information is divided into three sections: Inclusion in the Age of School Restructuring; Educational Structures and Practices that Support Diversity; and Research About Inclusive Schooling Practices. There is an extensive reference list and appendices on district and federal court decisions about inclusion (both for and against inclusion) and research study tables that detail documented outcomes for students with disabilities in inclusive settings.


TITLE: Working towards inclusive education: Social contexts
AUTHOR: Mittler, P.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 2000
London : David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

In his introduction, Mittler states “[i]nclusion is not about placing children in mainstream schools. It is about changing schools to make them more responsive to the needs of all children” (p. vii). He places education, and inclusion, in the wider context of the values and attitudes of the society in which they occur. He identifies the underlying theme in his book as “the pervasive influence of poverty and social disadvantage as forces of exclusion” (p. ix), and seeks to take an international perspective on the development of inclusive practices in education, although much of his discussion is grounded in laws and practices in the UK. The eleven chapters are as follows: From Exclusion to Inclusion, Global Dimensions, The Early Years (about children under age 5), Social Exclusion, Can Schools Prevent Learning Difficulties, Towards Inclusive Policies, Curriculum and Assessment, Towards Inclusive Practice, Preparing All Teachers to Teach All Pupils, Parents and Teachers, and Into the Future: Tensions and Dilemmas.


TITLE: Double jeopardy: Addressing gender equity in special education
AUTHORS: Rousso, H., & Wehmeyer, M. L.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

This book addresses in-depth the discrimination that girls and women with disabilities face in education. The book is organized into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the issues pertaining to gender and disability at a societal level. The second addresses gender equity issues affecting the education of all students. The third focuses on the existing knowledge of gender issues uniquely related to the education of students with disabilities or to students receiving special education services & supports; also described are some innovative programs for girls and/or youth with disabilities that promote equity. The final section summarizes the key findings and makes recommendations for the future. The book and its contributors hope to enable educators and others to identify the biases of gender and disability and to develop tools and strategies to develop gender equitable education.


TITLE: Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion
AUTHORS: Thomas, G., & Loxley, A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Buckingham: Open University Press.

This book is one in a series of six books that examine the political, social, psychological, and educational contexts in which the practice of inclusive education is embedded. In this volume, the authors identify and critique the intellectual schemas and historical roots upon which the practice of special education was built. They examine the ways that special education theory and knowledge were formed and legitimized, and critique the concepts of a child’s “need,” of failure, and of the construction and management of difference in special education. Chapter 6 begins a discussion of the changes in values in state welfare policy (in the United Kingdom), the ways that policy is translated and reflected in school practices, and the problems of conflicting layers of policy and the many layers of interpretation through which such policies pass. Chapter 7 makes an argument that current political and economic thinking, more so than more traditional psychological and sociological origins, have recently converged to support the cause for inclusion. They argue that inclusion is more about a comprehensive ideal in education, and an attention to rights, than a concern for children’s supposed “needs.”


TITLE: Teaching self-determination to students with disabilities: Basic skills for successful transition
AUTHORS: Wehmeyer, M.S., Agran, M., & Hughes, C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

The authors of this book characterize self-determined behavior as behavior that is autonomous, self-regulated, psychologically empowered, and self-realizing (p. 7), and make a strong case for the inclusion of self-determination skills in the educational programs of students with disabilities. The book is divided into five sections of three chapters each and ends with a summary and conclusion chapter. Each chapter begins with a list of expected outcomes for the reader and a list of key terms, and ends with questions for review an extensive reference list. In each chapter, the authors ground their topics in the existing research literature before providing specific strategies or training formats for these topic areas. The book sections are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Promoting Autonomous Behavior
  • Promoting Self-Regulated Behavior
  • Promoting Self-Advocacy and Leadership Skills
  • Promoting Self-Realization and Psychological Empowerment
  • Summary and Conclusions

The authors draw heavily from published research and pre-existing methods to present and develop their ideas, and provide reference lists at the end of each chapter that allow the reader to easily find original sources. This makes the text useful to researchers as well as to those interested in applying the concepts outlined in the book.


TITLE: Teaching students with mental retardation: Providing access to the general curriculum
AUTHORS: Wehmeyer, M. L., with Sands, D. J., Knowlton, H. E., & Kozelski, E. B.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This textbook is intended for the training of general and special educators of students with mental retardation labels and other academic support needs, but is also of value to researchers or other professionals. In the preface, the authors state that the foundation of this text is values-based, issues-oriented, and practice-oriented:

  • Values-based – The authors provide a functional definition of mental retardation based on level of support needed for instruction. They advocate for the inclusion of students in the general curriculum, and while they do not debate inclusion, they identify it as an important (but not adequate) part of how students may progress. This is also an emphasis on the principles of self-determination, age-appropriate instruction, and positive intervention for challenging behaviors.
  • Issues-oriented – The authors surveyed educators as well as college professors for their thoughts on what the top ten topics concerns working with students to be discussed in a textbook on this subject.
  • Practice-oriented – This books seeks to enable its users to work on accessing the general curriculum without redundancy and ready-made lesson plans and instructions. Rather, this book provides a framework for providing support to students.

OTHER RESOURCES ON RESEARCH:

  • Ballard, K. (1999). Inclusive education: International voices on disability and justice [Studies in Inclusive Education Series]. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Staub, D. (2000). On point …On inclusion and the other kids: Here’s what research shows so far about inclusion’s effect on nondisabled students. Denver, CO, Eugene, OR, & Newton, MA: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm
  • Vlachou, A. D. (1997). Struggles for inclusive education: An ethnographic study [Disability, Human Rights and Society]. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press.

TEACHER AND PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES

TITLE: Teaching students in inclusive settings: From theory to practice
AUTHORS: Bradley, D. F., King-Sears, M. E., & Tessier-Switlick, D. M.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

This textbook provides the historical background and philosophical foundations for inclusive education, as well as practical information about supporting students in inclusive classrooms. Several additional authors contribute to the 14 chapters. Chapters include: a historical orientation, legal foundations and the role of labels, the change process, collaborative team building, assessment, team planning, integrated therapies, curriculum modifications and adaptations, integrating specialized curricula, strategy instruction, behavior management, classrooms as community, and student support networks. Each chapter opens with an advance organizer and includes illustrative stories and a reference list. This book focuses on inclusive practices in general classrooms and learner characteristics and avoids categorical, one-size-fits-this-label strategy presentations.


TITLE: Inclusion: How to – Essential classroom strategies
AUTHOR: Bunch, G.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1999
Toronto, Ontario: Inclusion Press.

As the title suggests, this book seeks to explain the inner workings of the inclusive classroom. The author begins by presenting a short rationale for inclusion. Additional chapters outline classroom culture, accessible curriculum, curriculum as social opportunity, Vygotsky and children’s learning, strategies for modifying curriculum, cooperation and collaboration (with parents, resource teachers, assistants, volunteers, and principals), time, multiple intelligences, learning styles, the author’s thoughts, and a list of references that the author has found helpful or influential.


TITLE: Kids, disabilities and regular classrooms: An annotated bibliography of selected children’s literature on disability
AUTHOR: Bunch, G.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This annotated bibliography of disability-related literature for use with elementary and high school students is divided into one general and eight disability-specific areas. Story-oriented and instructionally oriented books are grouped by disability area and are further broken down by appropriate age level. The author includes a brief introduction, a section that discusses the value of inclusive literature, mini-strategies for classroom use, and hints for choosing literature.


TITLES: Adapting curriculum and instruction in inclusive classrooms: A teachers desk reference (2nd ed.) and Adapting curriculum and instruction in inclusive classrooms: Staff development kit (2nd ed.)
AUTHORS: Cole, S., Horvath, B., Chapman, C., Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D. G., & Sprague, J.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: n.d.
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, The Center on Education and Lifelong Learning.

The desk reference seeks to assist teachers to face the challenge of teaching students with diverse needs, especially the need to adapt and differentiate instruction in order to accommodate students with a range of abilities within the same classroom. It provides a conceptual model and a range of samples to help teachers create welcoming, inclusive classrooms with an emphasis that teachers need to apply their own professional knowledge and skills in order to make adaptations for every student. The companion staff development kit is intended for use in concert with the desk reference, to assist teachers and other personnel in grasping the concepts detailed in the desk reference. The kit includes transparencies/overheads, activity sheets, and other handouts detailing the information from the desk reference.


TITLE: Including students with severe and multiple disabilities in typical classrooms: Practical strategies for teachers (2nd ed.)
AUTHOR: Downing, J. E., with Eichinger, J., & Demchak, M. A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This text addresses the complexity of supporting students with severe and multiple disabilities in typical classrooms in a step-by step manner. The authors begin with an overview that grounds the reader in rationale for, history of, and desired outcomes of including students with severe and multiple disabilities in general classrooms and curricula. Subsequent chapters cover information about assessing the most effective ways to support individual students; supporting preschool, elementary, middle school, and high school students; the role of peers; working cooperatively, assessing progress; and a discussion of common concerns about inclusion. Four appendices at the end of the book give resources for systematic teaching, augmentative and alternative communication systems and manufacturers, and videotapes on inclusion. This updated edition addresses newer issues such as the Reauthorization of IDEA, assessments and student progress, daily scheduling, and coordinating educational team members.


TITLE: The paraprofessional’s guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a team (2nd ed.)
AUTHOR: Doyle, M. B.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This is the second edition of a workbook created to help paraprofessionals work together with educators to include students with disabilities. The author provides introductory information for paraprofessional, general educators, and special educators to better understand each other’s roles and responsibilities in an inclusive classroom. This workbook includes activities designed to facilitate teamwork, and there are a variety of blank forms to use in the Appendix.


TITLE: Inclusive and heterogeneous schooling: Assessment, curriculum, and instruction
AUTHOR: Falvey, M. A. (Ed.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1995
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This text is another wide ranging collection of chapters by a variety of authors, all with the view of including all children in schools, with particular emphasis on students with more severe disabilities. The first few chapters introduce the issues, including a history of services for children with disabilities, as well as the history of general education. There is a chapter on collaboration, as well as one on assessment to develop curriculum. This chapter is followed by several detailed appendices showing examples of ways to develop curricula for students with severe disabilities. Several chapters focus on integrating related services into the classroom. A chapter discusses ways to create a classroom that is supportive of a diverse student body, as well as ways to help all students develop and maintain friendships. Of particular interest for some people may be a chapter on inclusive preschool education.


TITLE: All my life’s a circle. Using the tools: Circles, MAPS & PATHS, New and expanded
AUTHORS: Falvey, M. A., Forest, M., Pearpoint, J., & Rosenberg, R. L.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: July, 2000
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This manual presents three tools that help individuals with (and without) disabilities build their desired futures. Circles of Support is a method that gathers groups of people together who work to enhance the focus person’s social network. It begins with a visual representation of a person’s social connections. MAPS, or Making Action Plans, is a tool that helps individuals and their supporters, through a series of eight key questions, create a picture of their desired future and a plan of action to reach that future. PATH, or Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope, was developed from MAPS as a planning process that begins with the person’s dream and “plans backwards.”

The authors provide detailed descriptions of each step of each method, and graphic and written examples from related meetings that illustrate each method. The expanded section contains a video transcript of one of the author’s MAPS meeting, an article by Judith Snow on dreaming a desirable future, and eleven articles on inclusion, person-centered planning, and the three featured methods. Discussions of each method and the supporting materials are presented in a format that is easy to use.


TITLE: Making a difference: Advocacy competencies for special education professionals
AUTHOR: Fiedler, C. R.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 2000
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

The author of this book is both a professional and a parent of a child with a disability. He believes that special educators have a responsibility to be strong advocates for the rights of children with disabilities and their families, With this in mind, he details what he believes are essential advocacy competencies for special education professionals. The book is divided into five sections, and begins with four brief vignettes designed to present advocacy issues to be discussed throughout the book. Part I of the book proposes five arguments for the need for special educators to serve as advocates. Part II presents three essential advocacy values and attitudes for special educators: advocacy, ethical, and family support/empowerment. Part III of the book outlines three knowledge bases necessary for special educators to understand: knowledge of special education law, knowledge of dispute resolution techniques, and knowledge of systems change. Part IV presents five essential advocacy skills, and the final section of the book discusses desired outcomes of special education advocacy.


TITLE: Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (2nd ed.)
AUTHORS: Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1999
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

This textbook is designed for use in teaching the “adaptations” course that is often the only required course for pre-service and practicing general education teachers. The book is organized into three main sections. The first section addresses the history and foundations of special education and inclusion. The second provides a framework for thinking about accommodations, and disability label-specific information. The final section of the book presents information on assessment, instructional adaptation, and strategies for independent learning, evaluation, responding to student behavior, and building social relationships. Each chapter opens with a list of learner objectives and related vignettes that illustrate issues to be addressed, and includes case studies, key terms, application activities, marginal annotations, practical teaching ideas, technology notes, and chapter summaries. This is a comprehensive text that effectively covers a lot of information and provides links to numerous additional resources. This textbook comes with a supplemental package for instructors that includes an Instructor’s Resource Manual and an Inclusion Video.


TITLE: Quick-guides to inclusion 3: Ideas for educating students with disabilities
AUTHOR: Giangreco, M. (Ed.) .
PUBLISHING INFORMATION: 2001
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Available online: http://www.brookespublishing.com/store/books/giangreco-5826/ebook/registration.htm

This e-book is the third in a series designed for educators who want helpful information but feel they don’t have time to read long articles or books. This book expands on topics addressed in two previous books (offered in 1997 and 1998). It is available for free download in PDF format and is available as a whole unit or as individual guides on the following topics, each of which begins with an authors’ introduction, is divided into ten one-page guides, and ends with a selected reference list:

  • Differentiated Instruction (Robi Kronberg) – This section addresses many categories of classroom diversity through use of differentiated instruction that attends to classroom community and addresses different learning styles and cooperative learning strategies.
  • Literacy (David Koppenhaver and Karen A. Erickson) – This section consists of 10 one-page guidelines that address literacy and communication, word-based lessons, balancing instruction, making materials accessible and diverse, and assessment and teaching strategies.
  • Supporting Friendships (Carol Tashie and Zach Rossetti) – This section addresses 10 areas critical to the understanding and promotion of friendships between students with and without disabilities. Teacher modeling, classroom practices, and understanding of the roles of communication, diversity are discussed. The roles of support staff, other students, and family members are also outlined.
  • Self-Determination (Michael L. Wehmeyer) – This section discusses topics related to self-determination, including problem-solving, focusing on student strengths and uniqueness, creating learning communities, empowering students to make choices and decisions, using peer supports, and teaching students self-determination skills such as problem-solving, goal-setting, and self-advocacy.
  • High School Classrooms (Cheryl Jorgensen, Douglas Fisher, and Carol Tashie) – This section extends inclusive practices from elementary to secondary classrooms. It offers ideas about recognizing each student’s “smartness”, making learning relevant, cooperative learning, providing supports, discussing social justice values in the curriculum, and addressing school-wide philosophies and practices in order to move toward more inclusive settings
  • Students Who Use Wheelchairs (Michael Giangreco, Irene McEwen, Timothy Fox, and Deborah Lisi-Baker) – This section offers guidelines about assisting students who use wheelchairs, including transferring to and from the chair and mobility issues. Guidelines include philosophical as well as practical considerations.

TITLE: Choosing outcomes and accommodations for children (COACH): A guide to educational planning for students with disabilities (2nd ed.)
AUTHORS: Giangreco, M. F., Cloninger, C. J., & Salce Iverson, V.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This manual is designed for teachers and others to develop a plan to include all children in their classrooms. The book starts out with a number of values that form the basis of their planning guide, including the importance of the child’s family in educational planning, and collaborative teamwork. The first part of the manual discusses setting learning priorities that consider the context of the child’s family. The second section demonstrates translating these priorities into long- and short-term classroom goals, including the identification of needed classroom accommodations and supports. The final section gives step-by-step instructions on implementing plans in an inclusive classroom. This last section is followed by a thorough list of references, as well as appendices that contain examples and sample forms referred to during the three main sections of the manual. Substantially revised in response to research and consumer feedback, the second edition is more user-friendly, family oriented, and focused on life outcomes such as social relationships and participation in typical home, school, and community activities. Also, COACH forms can now be purchased separately.


TITLE: Building cultural reciprocity with families: Case studies in special education
AUTHORS: Harry, B.; Kalyanpur, M.; & Day, M.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 1999

This book is a companion to Culture in Special Education: Building Reciprocal Family-Professional Relationships, and provides case studies of eight families of children with disabilities who are from cultural minorities. The first section outlines the authors’ “posture of cultural reciprocity” that was presented as the final section of their previous book. Detailed chapter-length case studies of each family follow, illustrating applications of the posture of cultural reciprocity. The families featured in this book were participants in a four-year research project funded by the US Department of Education and that involved five universities studying “the effective inclusion of children with moderate to severe disabilities into the mainstream of the social life experienced by their peers and families”(p. xii).


TITLE: Culture in special education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships
AUTHORS: Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 1999
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

The authors of this book provide a detailed analysis of the social constructions of disability, special education, and the role of professional expertise and language in special education and in interactions with parents. They examine ways that professionals view parenting styles through the lenses of a variety of cultures and research projects. In the final chapter of the book, the authors offer four guidelines or “steps” to developing a posture of cultural reciprocity between professionals and parents that leads to adapting professional interpretations to the value system of the family. They end by outlining the experiences of four families of children with disabilities, providing specific examples of ways that applying the guidelines outlined earlier in the chapter could have improved the relationship between each family and group of professionals, and the outcome for the child and his or her family. This book has the potential to sensitize professionals to ways that cultural values shape family understandings of disability; however, the language in the earlier part of the book may be difficult to understand for those not grounded in the language of sociological theory.


TITLE: Differentiating instruction in the regular classroom: How to reach and teach all learners, grades 3-12
AUTHOR: Heacox, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.

Differentiated instruction involves changing the pace, level, or kind of instruction based on individual learners’ needs, styles or interests. Differentiated instruction can also be understood as a way of thinking about teaching and learning. This book provides a variety of strategies for differentiating instruction, and is divided into two sections: Getting Ready and Differentiation in Action. Included throughout are reproducible forms and other documents. Appendices include a letter to families, resources for differentiating classroom discussions, and the Content Catalysts Processes and Products (CCPP) Toolkit, which enables teachers to quickly and effectively create learning activities that reflect both variety and challenge.


TITLE: Reach them all: Adapting curriculum & instruction with technology in inclusive classrooms
AUTHORS: Hounshell, M., Irvin, M., Ely, S., Sato, S., Janes, M.B., & Morrison,
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: April, 1999
Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Center for Disability Information & Referral and Center on Technology and Instruction.

The authors of this manual recognize the importance of technology and the possible contributions it can make in improving learning for all students. The manual is divided into eight sections. A glossary of technology terms is included as well as a number of resources. While the manual provides a basic framework to develop new approaches that utilize technology, the authors encourage the reader to use their professional judgment to determine the use of technology for specific children.


TITLE: Positive behavioral supports in the classroom: Principles and practices
AUTHORS: Jackson, L,. & Veeneman Panyan, M.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Positive behavioral support can be defined as a perspective on learning and behavior that supports the provision of educational services to students with challenging behaviors within school and community settings. In the introduction, the authors discuss what they believe to be the five basic precepts that are different in positive behavioral support than other models that deal with behavioral support:

  • Schooling is viewed as a largely irreducible cultural experience rather than as a cumulative skill-acquisition process.
  • Schools serve as institutions for both the transmission of knowledge and the development of a complex myriad of roles and relationships with fellow citizens.
  • Most youth who experience trauma, who have difficult family situations, who are marginalized, who have been labeled as having behavioral disorders or who use behavior to protect themselves and meet personal needs can success in school without unduly endangering the rights of others.
  • The routine use of behavioral support processes with specific students in the general education classroom does not take away from the educational experiences of the other students.
  • Moving from a society in which behavior problems are largely addressed by prevention and support must be viewed as a long-range goal.

The book is organized into five sections: The Origins of Positive Behavioral Support; Understanding and Characterizing the Support Process; Planning and Assessment for Positive Behavior Support; Positive Behavior Support Practices and Their Applications; and Positive Behavioral Supports at the School and Community Levels.


TITLE: Alternate assessment: Measuring outcomes and supports for students with disabilities
AUTHORS: Kleinert, H. L., & Farmer Kearns, J., with invited contributors
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

IDEA ’97 has required that states develop alternative assessments for students who cannot participate in large-scale, general assessments, even with accommodations (p. 9). Assessments are crucial in determining how students demonstrate what they know and can do, and the authors seek to help raise standards and expectations for all students. This book begins by discussing the broad historical development of alternative assessments and essential questions that guide their development. Authors consider alternate assessments from the perspective of teachers, students, and families. Other topics include:

  • a process for designing IEPs linked to state learning standards for all students;
  • how state standards can be used to guide the curriculum process;
  • a series of examples across elementary, middle, and high school to show how students with significant disabilities can participate in instructional activities that address individualized objectives and at the same time provide performance data essential to alternative assessment;
  • strategies for integrating alternative assessments into both individualized planning and ongoing instruction;
  • a conceptual framework for structuring alternate assessments to teach students self-determination;
  • how technology can be used to both enhance student learning and build capacity of alternative assessment to fully “capture” learning voices of teachers and families are included, especially regarding social relationships and friendships as instrumental educational outcomes as well as information on documentation of student performance across environments.

Finally, the authors present research findings on a core set of criteria that should be used to evaluate alternate assessment, teachers’ perceptions of alternate assessments, and what is known to date about the impact of alternate assessment. The authors note that there are topics regarding alternate assessment that they do not discuss, those of which are mainly related to policy, especially since the issues of alternate assessment related to policy are ongoing and emergent and the answers are very state-specific.


TITLE: Improving educational outcomes for children with disabilities: Principles for assessment, program planning, and evaluation
AUTHOR: Kozloff, M. A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1994
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

“Education can be of great benefit to children with disabilities and their families. It can bring children into the social world, help them acquire needed skills, and enable them to enjoy the richness of experience that is taken for granted by persons without disabilities.” However, Kozloff believes, more often than not the promise of education for children with disabilities is unfulfilled, and program evaluation is rarely carried out in a manner that reveals how instruction may be altered to better facilitate progress for children. In this book the author discusses, through the use of numerous stories from personal experience, issues regarding program assessment that include: educational aims, effects of social distance, common human needs, models of standard behavioral repertoires, socially insensitive assessments, learning through interactions with environments, families of children with developmental disabilities, coordinated and empowering programs, interviewing, and direct observations.


TITLE: Strategies for teaching exceptional children in inclusive settings
AUTHORS: Meyen, E. L., Vergason, G. A., & Whelan, R. J. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
Denver: Love Publishing Co.

This comprehensive text is a useful resource for teachers and others who are looking for a guide to include all children in an inclusive environment. There are four basic sections to this book outlining specific strategies for inclusion. The first section is on curriculum and instruction, and there are several chapters about collaborating to serve children’s diverse needs. The second section of this book is based on assessing the needs of all students in an inclusive classroom. The chapters in this section describe alternatives to traditional classification systems that most schools currently utilize. While one chapter specifically addresses children with learning disabilities, the other chapters on assessment are applied to all students. The third section of this book focuses on classroom management for teachers in inclusive classrooms. This section does not take the traditional approach that children’s behavior is managed as a euphemism for punishment, but instead shows how discipline for all students can be built into each classroom. Of particular interest is a chapter on dispute resolution within classrooms, where students resolve their own conflicts. The fourth and final section of the book is on collaboration, which brings together issues from the other chapters right into the classroom with all school personnel involved. One chapter focuses particularly on ways special and general educators can effectively work together. Another chapter explores the issue of consultation and collaboration in the inclusive classroom.


TITLE: Working towards inclusive education: Social contexts
AUTHOR: Mittler, P.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 2000
London : David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

In his introduction, Mittler states “[i]nclusion is not about placing children in mainstream schools. It is about changing schools to make them more responsive to the needs of all children” (p. vii). He places education, and inclusion, in the wider context of the values and attitudes of the society in which they occur. He identifies the underlying theme in his book as “the pervasive influence of poverty and social disadvantage as forces of exclusion” (p. ix), and seeks to take an international perspective on the development of inclusive practices in education, although much of his discussion is grounded in laws and practices in the UK. The eleven chapters are as follows: From Exclusion to Inclusion, Global Dimensions, The Early Years (about children under age 5), Social Exclusion, Can Schools Prevent Learning Difficulties, Towards Inclusive Policies, Curriculum and Assessment, Towards Inclusive Practice, Preparing All Teachers to Teach All Pupils, Parents and Teachers, and Into the Future: Tensions and Dilemmas.


TITLE: Cooperative learning and trategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the classroom (2nd ed.)
AUTHOR: Putnam, J. W. (Ed.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

In the book’s introduction, Robert Slavin points out that, while cooperative learning is a well-researched and popular practice used increasingly to promote the inclusion of students with disabilities, many teachers do not attend to the details that lead to effective use of the method. This book presents a detailed introduction into the foundations of cooperative learning and provides ideas and specific examples of the application of cooperative learning strategies in lessons at all grade levels. This edition also broadens the discussion of classroom diversity to include culture as well as disability, and introduces new information on multiple intelligences, multilevel instruction, and computers and cooperative learning. Each chapter presents relevant findings from research to support each concept presented, and most provide specific examples to illustrate proposed methods.


TITLE: Teaching children with autism: Strategies to enhance communication and socialization
AUTHOR: Quill, K. A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1995
Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Publishers, Inc.

This book, edited by Kathleen Quinn, provides educators, students, and families with a framework to think about ongoing efforts to promote communication and socialization for students with autism, and contains case studies in each major section. In describing autism and the unique learning style of many people with autism, Kathleen Quill has included strategies and instructional adaptations for enhancing communication and supporting socialization that are sensitive and sensible. The authors not only look at the communication and socialization of children with autism, but also factor in the complexity of special education systems, parent desires, and professional responsibility.

The layout of this book makes it easy to use. There are key terms in the margins, tables are easy to read, and each chapter has both a summary and comprehensive support references.


TITLE: Collaborative teams for students with severe disabilities: Integrating therapy and educational services
AUTHORS: Rainforth, B., York, J., & Macdonald, C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This book serves as a guide for professionals who work with children with severe handicaps to employ teamwork in educational settings. The authors state that as people with severe disabilities are integrated into the community, so educators must integrate their roles to support children in schools. The author, all therapists, discuss ways to integrate these kinds of services into the daily routines of students. The first section of the book provides a framework for a collaborative model, including philosophical and legal rationales. An important chapter in this section discusses including parents as a part of the student’s team. The second section discusses the planning stages of collaboration. The chapters take the reader through collaborative assessment, designing an educational plan, and curriculum adaptations. Finally, the third section describes implementation of collaborative education, giving many specific ideas on how to keep the team working well together.


TITLE: Double jeopardy: Addressing gender equity in special education
AUTHORS: Rousso, H., & Wehmeyer, M. L.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

This book addresses in-depth the discrimination that girls and women with disabilities face in education. The book is organized into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the issues pertaining to gender and disability at a societal level. The second addresses gender equity issues affecting the education of all students. The third focuses on the existing knowledge of gender issues uniquely related to the education of students with disabilities or to students receiving special education services & supports; also described are some innovative programs for girls and/or youth with disabilities that promote equity. The final section summarizes the key findings and makes recommendations for the future. The book and its contributors hope to enable educators and others to identify the biases of gender and disability and to develop tools and strategies to develop gender equitable education.


TITLE: Integration/inclusion education for students with disabilities
AUTHORS: Rulli, D., Hurley, J. & Krasner, S.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Middletown, CT: SERC Library.
Available online: http://www.ctserc.org/library/actualbibs/Integration9699.pdf,

This is a large bibliography of resources compiled by SERC with funding from the Connecticut Department of Education. This bibliography has been updated regularly with several addenda, with the most recent containing resources from January 2001 to April 2002.


TITLE: Creative inclusive classrooms: Effective and reflective practices (4th ed.)
AUTHOR: Salend, S. J.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

This textbook seeks to integrate the perspectives of teachers, students, and families, and reflecting current research on inclusion into practical classroom applications. It is organized into four sections. The first section includes chapters on understanding inclusion (historical foundations, laws, and impact), understanding diverse educational needs of students with disabilities (broken into disability-specific areas with generalizations about the characteristics and learning needs of students in each area), and understanding the diverse educational needs of learners who challenge schools (students without disability labels). The second section contains chapters on collaboration, attitudes and classroom culture, transition into inclusive settings, and fostering positive classroom behavior strategies. The third section includes four chapters of strategies related to instructional techniques in general, and to specific content areas. The final section provides information about evaluating student progress and program effectiveness. The text includes a case-based tutorial CD about developing quality IEPs. Chapters begin with classroom vignettes, and include margin notes that point to additional resources on relevant topics, and informational boxes about reflecting on teaching practice, ideas for implementation, and video resources. Additional resources include an instructor’s manual, computerized test bank software, a video library, and a companion website.


TITLE: Whole school success and inclusive education: Building partnerships for learning, achievement, and accountability
AUTHOR: Sailor, W. (Ed.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
New York: Teachers College Press.

This book discusses inclusion of students with disabilities with a particular emphasis on entire (or “whole”) school improvement, and themes concerning the commonalties between the services and supports that schools may provide and those provided and improved upon by communities and society at large. The book is divided into four parts. Part I focuses on inclusion and forming partnerships from a public policy standpoint. Part II examines the formation the collaborative partnerships, especially in terms of helping families, the future of integrating services, and the transition from school to work. Part III focuses on inclusive teaching practices, including supports for regular and special educators, paraprofessionals, and other service personnel. Finally, Part IV discusses the future of collaboration, especially in terms of financing inclusive education and in teacher preparation.


TITLE: Conducting effective conferences with parents of children with disabilities: A guide for teachers
AUTHOR: Seligman, M.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
New York: The Guilford Press.

This book is designed to assist teachers to work together effectively with parents. It presents the perspectives of parents of children with disabilities, especially in terms of the ever-changing lives of their children, in order to help teachers understand their experiences. Seligman recognizes that, like any parents, parents of children with disabilities are concerned about the education their child receives, but that the issues they encounter may be quite different. The author provides conferencing and interviewing tools, and the book is laid out in sequential topic areas. Chapter topics include Family Dynamics, Basic Principles of Interviewing, IEPs, and Working with Challenging Parents. An appendix of resources for teachers to help parents is included.


TITLE: Curriculum considerations in inclusive classrooms: Facilitating learning for all students
AUTHORS: Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This book focuses on adapting the educational curriculum for all students in regular classrooms, including those with the most severe disabilities. The first section of the book introduces the concept of inclusive education and gives some information on implementing classroom inclusion. Another part provides ideas about designing curriculum appropriate for every student in an inclusive classroom. The second section of this book contains seven chapters about adapting curriculum, utilizing adapted curricula the classroom, and integrating support staff into the classroom. The third section brings up other issues related to educational curriculum, for example, ways to include all students in extracurricular activities. and ways to include parents (in a chapter written by parents).


TITLE: Inclusion: A guide for educators
AUTHORS: Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This text is divided into six basic sections. The first is an introduction to inclusion, including discussions of the rationale behind inclusive education, the history of inclusion in the US, and inclusion as a force for school renewal. The second section, Basic Strategies, presents a variety of strategies supporting inclusion, for example, MAPS, Circles of Friends, and PATH. The third section is about collaboration, and focuses on building friendships and building community. The fourth section looks at curriculum issues, with concrete ways to plan curriculum. Children’s behavior in the inclusive classroom is the topic of the fifth section, which is designed to assist teachers establish classroom practices that prevent behavior problems, as well as give some information on addressing issues as they arise. The last section of the book includes chapters about the positive influences that inclusion has on the self-identity of people with disabilities, the importance of having the support of the community and family for inclusive schools; and concluding remarks regarding concerns about inclusion.


TITLE: Support networks for inclusive schooling
AUTHORS: Stainback, W., & Stainback, S.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1990
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

There has been much discussion in the field of education regarding inclusion of students who have disabilities in the regular classroom. This book provides assistance with the actual nuts-and-bolts of promoting friendships among all students. It is divided into three sections: part one describes inclusive schooling and support networking; part two focuses on specific supports that can be utilized to assist students and classroom teachers; part three emphasizes how parents, administrators, and community members can work together to create supportive and caring schools. This book will be very helpful to teachers who want to know more about the nature of providing support to students who have disabilities in their classroom, as well as how they, as teachers, can acquire their own support. Parents will find this book helpful in determining supports that will promote their child’s successful inclusion in the classroom.


TITLE: Students with mild disabilities in general education settings: A guide for special educators
AUTHORS: Vallecorsa, A. L., deBettencourt, L. U., & Zigmond, N.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

This textbook was written for both practicing and pre-service special education teachers who will be teaching students in inclusive settings. It opens with an overview of the historical roots of special education, and includes chapters on models of in-class models of instruction, approaches to collaboration and consultation, approaches to collaborative teaching, or c-teaching, evaluating instructional contexts, evaluating academic performance, creating academic accommodations, evaluating behavior problems, and behavior management strategies. Each chapter opens with a list of key words, chapter objectives, a “case study” vignette, and a paragraph about the purpose of the chapter.


TITLE: Creating an inclusive school
AUTHORS: Villa, R. A., & Thousand, J. S. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1995
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
1250 N. Pitt Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
http://www.ascd.org

Villa and Thousand have edited a number of books on inclusive education, and this one is a real asset for teachers, parents and members of the community. The first chapter describes the basics of inclusion and presents several perspectives on the meanings of inclusive education. This is followed by a short chapter written by a “regular parent” of a child in school, who documents his conversation with his son who notices a peer with a disability being removed from his classroom. An historical perspective of inclusive education is also given, as well as a description of the philosophy and rationale for creating inclusive schools.

This book contains several interesting chapters written by parents and teachers of children with disabilities that bring the philosophy described by the professionals to life. In addition, the chapter by a person with a disability presents an important but often overlooked perspective. There are several chapters on adapting curriculum to the needs of all students and planning for change to an inclusive school. A chapter outlining questions that teachers, administrators and parents may have on creating an inclusive school is also included, and the authors share advice and resources related to this topic.


TITLE: Restructuring for caring and effective education: An administrative guide for creating heterogeneous schools
AUTHORS: Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. S., Stainback, W., & Stainback, S. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

The editors of this book have included many chapters by various authors on merging special and regular education for the use of school administrators. The book is premised on the notion that the public educational system needs to serve all children with excellence and equity. It is divided into four major sections, each containing several chapters. As an interesting organizing point, one author introduces each section with a vignette “wedding” regular and special education, acknowledging the difficulties of merging educational practices. While some of the authors of the numerous chapters are university professors, others are administrators, and one is an elementary school principal. Many examples are given of schools that became communities where all children are valued, and where every child’s needs are met in a regular classroom. This text will be a useful guide for districts planning for heterogeneous schools, and for parents and advocates to provide evidence of inclusive school practices to administrators.


TITLE: Teaching self-determination to students with disabilities: Basic skills for successful transition
AUTHORS: Wehmeyer, M.S., Agran, M., & Hughes, C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

The authors of this book characterize self-determined behavior as behavior that is autonomous, self-regulated, psychologically empowered, and self-realizing (p. 7), and make a strong case for the inclusion of self-determination skills in the educational programs of students with disabilities. The book is divided into five sections of three chapters each and ends with a summary and conclusion chapter. Each chapter begins with a list of expected outcomes for the reader and a list of key terms, and ends with questions for review an extensive reference list. In each chapter, the authors ground their topics in the existing research literature before providing specific strategies or training formats for these topic areas. The book sections are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Promoting Autonomous Behavior
  • Promoting Self-Regulated Behavior
  • Promoting Self-Advocacy and Leadership Skills
  • Promoting Self-Realization and Psychological Empowerment
  • Summary and Conclusions

The authors draw heavily from published research and pre-existing methods to present and develop their ideas, and provide reference lists at the end of each chapter that allow the reader to easily find original sources. This makes the text useful to researchers as well as to those interested in applying the concepts outlined in the book.


TITLE: Teaching students with mental retardation: Providing access to the general curriculum
AUTHORS: Wehmeyer, M. L., with Sands, D. J., Knowlton, H. E., & Kozelski, E. B.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2002
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This textbook is intended for the training of general and special educators of students with mental retardation labels and other academic support needs, but is also of value to researchers or other professionals. In the preface, the authors state that the foundation of this text is values-based, issues-oriented, and practice-oriented:

  • Values-based – The authors provide a functional definition of mental retardation based on level of support needed for instruction. They advocate for the inclusion of students in the general curriculum, and while they do not debate inclusion, they identify it as an important (but not adequate) part of how students may progress. This is also an emphasis on the principles of self-determination, age-appropriate instruction, and positive intervention for challenging behaviors.
  • Issues-oriented – The authors surveyed educators as well as college professors for their thoughts on what the top ten topics concerns working with students to be discussed in a textbook on this subject.
  • Practice-oriented – This books seeks to enable its users to work on accessing the general curriculum without redundancy and ready-made lesson plans and instructions. Rather, this book provides a framework for providing support to students.

TITLE: Lessons for inclusion
AUTHORS: Vandercook, T., Rice Tetlie, R., Montle, J., Downing, J., Levin, J., Glanville, M., Solberg, B., Branham, S., Ellson, L., & McNear, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1993
Toronto: Inclusion Press.

This manual presents four lessons designed to assist teachers to develop a classroom community that invites all children. The goal of each lesson is to increase the self-esteem of each student and help each develop effective strategies for working cooperatively with classmates. The lessons are intended for kindergarten to second graders, and an alternative version of each is provided for grades 2-4. Each lesson is presented with background information and objectives, discussion questions, and activities. The Appendix provides all the worksheets needed for each activity.


OTHER TEACHER AND PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES:

  • Bauer, A. M., & Myree Brown, G. (2001). Adolescents and inclusion: Transforming secondary schools. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Bauer, A. M., Shea, T. M. (1999). Inclusion 101: How to teach all learners. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Beninghof, A. M. (2001). Ideas for inclusion: The classroom teacher’s guide. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
  • Beninghof, A. M., Singer, A. L. (1995). Ideas for inclusion: The school administrator’s guide. Colorado: Sopris West.
  • Buswell, B. E., Schaffner, C. B., & Seyler, A. B. (2000). Opening doors: Connecting students to curriculum, classmates, and learning. Colorado Springs: Peak Parent Center, Inc.
  • Castagnera, E., Fisher, D., Rodifer, K., & Sax, C. (n.d.). Deciding what to teach and how to teach it: Connecting students through curriculum and instruction. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Cooper, C., Frattura, E., & Keyes, M. W. (2000). Meeting the needs of students of ALL abilities: How leaders go beyond inclusion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Publishing.
  • Evans, J., Lunt, I., Wedell, K., & Dyson, A. (Eds.). Collaborating for effectiveness: Empowering schools to be inclusive. Buckingham, United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  • Falvey, M. A. (1995). Inclusion and heterogeneous schooling: Assessment, curriculum, and instruction. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Ferguson, D. L. (2000). On point… On teacher preparation and support in inclusive schools. Denver, CO, Eugene, OR, & Newton, MA: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm.
  • Ferguson, D. L. (2000). On point… On working together: Groupwork, teamwork, and collaborative work among educators. Denver, CO, Eugene, OR, & Newton, MA: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm.
  • Ferguson, D., Droege, C., Guðjónsdóttir, H., Lester, J., Meyer, G., Ralph, G., Sampson, N., & Williams, J. (2001). Designing personalized learning for every student. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
  • Filbin, J., Rogers-Connolly, T., & Brewer, R. (1996). Individualized learner outcomes: Infusing student needs into the regular education curriculum. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Giangreco, M. F. (Ed.). (1997). Quick-guides to inclusion: Ideas for educating students with disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Giangreco, M. F. (Ed.). (1998). Quick-guides to inclusion 2: Ideas for educating students with disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Hammill, L. B., & Dever, R. B. (1998). Preparing for inclusion: Secondary teachers describe their professional experiences. American Secondary Education, 27(1), 18-26.
  • Heden, D. L., Ayres, B. J., Meyer, L. H., & Waite, J. (1996). Quality schooling for students with severe behavioral challenges. In D. H. Lehr & F. Brown (Eds.), People with disabilities who challenge the system. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Hobbs, T., & Westling, D. L. (1998, September/October). Promoting successful inclusion through collaborative problem-solving. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(1), 12-19.
  • Jackson, L., & Leon, M. (n.d.). Developing a behavior support plan: A manual for teachers and behavioral specialists (2nd ed.). Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (1997). How teachers include students with moderate and severe disabilities in elementary classes: The means and meaning of inclusion. JASH, 22(3), 159-169.
  • Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (2000). Behavioral support: Teachers’ guides to inclusive practices. Baltimore: Paul. H. Brookes.
  • Janney, R., & Snell, M. E. (2000). Modifying schoolwork: Teachers’ guides to inclusive practices. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Ants in his pants: Absurdities and realities of special education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Flying by the seat of your pants: More absurdities and realities of special education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Teaching old logs new tricks: More absurdities and realities of education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Jorgensen, C. M. (1998). Restructuring high school for all students: Taking inclusion to the next level. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Katz, L., Sax, C., & Fisher, D. (n.d.). Activities for a diverse classroom: Connecting students. Colorado Springs: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
  • Kluth, P. (2003). “You’re going to love this kid”: Teaching students with autism in the inclusive classroom. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Kluth, P., Straut, D., & Biklen, D. (Eds.). (2003). Access to academics for all students: Critical approaches to inclusive curriculum, instruction, and policy. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • National Center on Secondary Education and Transition. (2003, February). Connecting to Success – Mentoring through technology to promote student achievement: Training manual. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.
  • Pearpoint, J., O’Brien, J., Forest, J., & Forest, M. (1995). PATH: A workbook for planning positive possible futures. Toronto: Inclusion Press.
  • Roach, V. (1994). The superintendent’s role in creating inclusive schools. The School Administrator, 25, 20-27.
  • Sapon-Shevin, M. (1999). Because we can change the world: A practical guide to building cooperative inclusive classroom communities. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Snell, M. E., & Janney, R. (2000). Teachers’ guides to inclusive practices: Collaborative teaming. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Tashie, C., Shapiro-Bernard, S., Dillon, A. D., Schuh, M., Jorgensen, C. M., & Nisbet, J. (1993). Changes in latitudes, changes in attitudes: The role of the inclusion facilitator. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • Tertell, E., Klein, S., & Jewett, J. (Eds.). (1998). When teachers reflect: Journeys toward effective, inclusive practice. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).
  • Thousand, J. S., Villa, R. A., & Nevin, A. I. (Eds.). (2002). Creativity and collaborative learning: The practical guide to empowering students, teachers, and families (2nd ed). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
  • Wade, S. E. (Ed.). (2000). Inclusive education: A casebook and readings for prospective and practicing teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Wade, S. E. (Ed.). (2000). Preparing teachers for inclusive education: Case pedagogies and curricula for teacher educators. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.
  • Wagner, S. (1999). Inclusive programming for elementary students with autism. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, Inc.
  • Wallace, T., Pickett, A. L., & Likins, M. (2002, Fall). IMPACT: Feature Issue on Paraeducators Supporting Students with Disabilities and At-Risk. Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.
  • Whitbread, K. M. (2000). Policy effects on teachers’ attitudes about inclusion: A multi-school system study. Gilman, CT: Pennycorner Press.
  • Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom: Strategies and techniques every teacher can use to challenge and motivate struggling students. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing Incorporated.
  • York-Barr, J., Kronberg, R. M., & Doyle, M. B. (1996). Creating inclusive school communities: A staff development series for general and special educators. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Theoretical Foundations and Philosophy

TITLE: Creating tomorrow’s schools today: Stories of inclusion, change, & renewal
AUTHORS: Berres, M. S., Ferguson, D. L., Knoblock, P., & Woods, C. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1996
New York: Teachers College Press.

“Why restructure schools so that children of all abilities can be active and contributing members of their school communities? …the complex process of creating homes within our schools for all children is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for children with disabilities, but for all members of the school community,” (p. 1) suggest the authors of this book.

This book demonstrates that the groundwork for inclusion is most successful in general education as a centerpiece of broader school restructuring. The authors examine several areas that indicate reasons for change, including the influence of political and social justice, innovative instruction and curriculum, the school as community, and personal experience. A number of examples of inclusive school communities are used by the authors to illustrate the effects of a genuine commitment to a process of change that could result in schools making equal academic efforts for all children.


TITLE: Achieving the complete school: Strategies for effective mainstreaming
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1985
New York: Teachers College Press.

This is one of the earliest books to clearly examine principles and strategies for successful inclusion of students into regular classrooms in neighborhood schools. Separate chapters address the roles of several different team participants (district special education administrator, school building principal, teacher, and parents) and illustrates ways that each group becomes “more effective when it understands the basic nature of the other groups’ roles.” Co-authors of specific chapters include Robert Bogdan, Stanford J. Searl, Jr., Steven J. Taylor, and Dianne Ferguson.

Areas examined include not only special education/regular education issues, such as principles for curriculum planning, but also the basic aspects of organization and change that make inclusion work. Case studies illustrate the complexities involved in inclusion, the relationship of the process to the culture of schools, and the many critical issues affecting the integration of special and regular education.

Based on the experiences of scores of administrators, teachers, and parents, the material in Achieving the Complete School was drawn from two extensive studies funded by the National Institute of Education and the U.S. Department of Education carried out simultaneously over three years. Achieving the Complete School continues to be a classic text concerning inclusive education.


TITLE: Schooling without labels: Parents, educators, and inclusive education
AUTHOR: Biklen, D.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1992
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Starting with the question, “is there any place within the culture where integration already exists such that we could study it, learn from it, and apply principles from it to schools and other social settings?” Biklen closely examines the experiences of six families whose children with disabilities are full participants in family life.

Using the experiences of these families, Biklen outlines ways people with disability labels are included and valued in day-to-day settings. However, contradictions exist between the ways these individuals are constructed and supported through social policy and practice, and ways they are constructed and supported in family life. This book illustrates ways the principles of inclusion can be extended beyond family life to schools, community, and other social institutions.


TITLE: Inclusion: Recent research
AUTHORS: Bunch, G., & Valeo, A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1997
Toronto, Ontario: Inclusion Press.

The authors review available literature that discusses benefits of inclusive education, and those that discuss strategies that support the education of all students in the general classroom. The book’s 12 chapters include articles on teacher attitudes, children and parent attitudes, socialization, academics, behavior, paraprofessionals, models of inclusive education, collaboration, instructional strategies, and the authors’ final thoughts. Each research article is summarized, and Bunch and Valeo provide a “final word” to each that points to elements of particular interest within each study. The authors clearly state that their intent in compiling this book is not to debate the merits of inclusive education; rather, they focus on research that helps further inclusion as, in the authors’ words, “sound educational practice.”


TITLE: The foundations of inclusive education: A compendium of articles on effective strategies to achieve inclusive education
AUTHORS: Fisher, D., & Ryndak, D. L. (Eds.)
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
TASH
29 West Susquehanna Avenue, Suite 210
Baltimore, MD, 21204

This book, a series of articles originally published in the Journal of The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (JASH), address issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities in typical classrooms. A foreword by Steven J. Taylor introduces the philosophical underpinnings that inform inclusive education, and makes a case for the need for research that informs practice and for clearer descriptions of inclusive practices. The book is divided into four sections, each containing a number of related articles:

  • From Least Restrictive Environment to Inclusion: Conceptual Underpinnings and Overriding Issues – This section includes articles that relate to the underlying concepts of inclusive education from the perspective of parents, teachers, students, and professionals.
  • Perceptions of Inclusion and Attitudes Toward Students with Disabilities – This section includes articles from the perspective of peers of students with disabilities.
  • From Facilitation of Social Interactions to Belongingness: A Change of Focus – This section contains articles that address issues of membership in school social communities.
  • Strategies that Facilitate Inclusion – This section includes articles that offer a variety of practical strategies related to including students with disabilities in typical classrooms.

NOTE: There is now a second edition available. Please visit www.tash.org for more information.


TITLE: Integrating general and special education
AUTHORS: Goodlad, J. I., & Lovitt, T. C. (Eds.).
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1993
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

The contributors to this book write about various issues that address educating all children in an equitable way in our schools. It should be noted that while some of the chapters describe ways to combine regular and special education in an inclusive setting, others do not. The first two chapters of the book describe the background of the issues, and look at the separate and unequal tracks of education that seem contingent on disability labels. The third chapter describes issues to be addressed in inclusive education that are further discussed by other authors in the rest of the book. While the chapter on curriculum design presumes the inclusion of all children in a regular classroom, the authors of a chapter on comprehensive delivery systems go to great lengths to describe what “all” children means, and do not necessarily gear their chapter to inclusive education. The chapter written by a school principal is an interesting addition to the book, as are chapters about restructuring schools and helping teachers adapt to combining general and special education.


TITLE: Culture in special education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships
AUTHORS: Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 1999
Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

The authors of this book provide a detailed analysis of the social constructions of disability, special education, and the role of professional expertise and language in special education and in interactions with parents. They examine ways that professionals view parenting styles through the lenses of a variety of cultures and research projects. In the final chapter of the book, the authors offer four guidelines or “steps” to developing a posture of cultural reciprocity between professionals and parents that leads to adapting professional interpretations to the value system of the family. They end by outlining the experiences of four families of children with disabilities, providing specific examples of ways that applying the guidelines outlined earlier in the chapter could have improved the relationship between each family and group of professionals, and the outcome for the child and his or her family. This book has the potential to sensitize professionals to ways that cultural values shape family understandings of disability; however, the language in the earlier part of the book may be difficult to understand for those not grounded in the language of sociological theory.


TITLE: Schooling children with Down syndrome: Toward an understanding of possibility
AUTHOR: Kliewer, C.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 1998
New York: Teachers College Press.

This book is the result of the author’s extensive qualitative research on the cultural meaning of Down syndrome in the school lives of children. Kliewer presents the experiences of individuals with Down syndrome as an example of ways that ideas about competence, mental retardation, citizenship, and education are constructed in our culture, and the ways that these ideas affect the lives of labeled individuals. Kliewer draws extensively on historical evidence and his own research in classrooms to support his points. He concludes by presenting alternative models, such as inclusive school practices, that address issues raised throughout the book.


TITLE: Working towards inclusive education: Social contexts
AUTHOR: Mittler, P.
PUBLISHER INFORMATION: 2000
London : David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

In his introduction, Mittler states “[i]nclusion is not about placing children in mainstream schools. It is about changing schools to make them more responsive to the needs of all children” (p. vii). He places education, and inclusion, in the wider context of the values and attitudes of the society in which they occur. He identifies the underlying theme in his book as “the pervasive influence of poverty and social disadvantage as forces of exclusion” (p. ix), and seeks to take an international perspective on the development of inclusive practices in education, although much of his discussion is grounded in laws and practices in the UK. The eleven chapters are as follows: From Exclusion to Inclusion, Global Dimensions, The Early Years (about children under age 5), Social Exclusion, Can Schools Prevent Learning Difficulties, Towards Inclusive Policies, Curriculum and Assessment, Towards Inclusive Practice, Preparing All Teachers to Teach All Pupils, Parents and Teachers, and Into the Future: Tensions and Dilemmas.


TITLE: What have we learned about creating inclusive elementary schools?
AUTHORS: Shapiro-Bernard, S., Sgambatti F., Dixon, B., & Nelson, G.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2000
In J. Nisbet & D. Hagner (Eds.), Part of the community: Strategies for including everyone (pp. 85-105). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

This chapter describes the authors’ work creating inclusive classrooms in New Hampshire. They recount their experiences and report about lessons they’ve learned, especially who and what they believe are involved in creating and sustaining inclusive schools.


TITLE: Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion
AUTHORS: Thomas, G., & Loxley, A.
PUBLICATION INFORMATION: 2001
Buckingham: Open University Press.

This book is one in a series of six books that examine the political, social, psychological, and educational contexts in which the practice of inclusive education is embedded. In this volume, the authors identify and critique the intellectual schemas and historical roots upon which the practice of special education was built. They examine the ways that special education theory and knowledge were formed and legitimized, and critique the concepts of a child’s “need,” of failure, and of the construction and management of difference in special education. Chapter 6 begins a discussion of the changes in values in state welfare policy (in the United Kingdom), the ways that policy is translated and reflected in school practices, and the problems of conflicting layers of policy and the many layers of interpretation through which such policies pass. Chapter 7 makes an argument that current political and economic thinking, more so than more traditional psychological and sociological origins, have recently converged to support the cause for inclusion. They argue that inclusion is more about a comprehensive ideal in education, and an attention to rights, than a concern for children’s supposed “needs.”


OTHER RESOURCES ON THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS AND PHILOSOPHY:

  • Asante, S. (n.d.). When spider webs unite: Challenging articles and essays on community, diversity, and inclusion. Toronto: Inclusion Press.
  • Ballard, K. (1999). Inclusive education: International voices on disability and justice [Studies in Inclusive Education Series]. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Ferguson, D. L., Desjarlaism, A., & Meyer, G. (2000). Improving education: The promise of inclusive schooling. Denver, CO, Eugene, OR, & Newton, MA: National Institute for Urban School Improvement. Available online: http://www.edc.org/urban/publicat.htm.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Ants in his pants: Absurdities and realities of special education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Flying by the seat of your pants: More absurdities and realities of special education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Giangreco, M., & Ruelie, K. (2000). Teaching old logs new tricks: More absurdities and realities of education. Minnetonka, MN: Peytral Publications, Inc.
  • Hall, J. T. (1997). Social devaluation and special education: The right to full inclusion and an honest statement. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Pijl, S. J., Meijer, C., & Hegarty, S. (Eds.). (1996). Inclusive education: A global agenda. London: Routledge.
  • Powers, L. E., Singer, G. H. S., & Sowers, J. (1996). On the road to autonomy: Promoting self-competence in children and youth with disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
  • Schaefer, N. (n.d.). Yes! She knows she’s here. Toronto: Inclusion Press.
  • Shapiro, A. (1998). Everybody belongs: Changing negative attitudes towards classmates with disabilities. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
  • Shapiro-Barnard, S., Tashie, C., Martin, J., Malloy, J., Schuh, M., Piet, J., Lichtenstein, S., & Nisbet, J. (1996). Petroglyph’s: The writing on the wall. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • Slee, R. (1999). The inclusive school [Studies in Inclusive Education]. New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Smith, J. D. (1997). Inclusion: Schools for all students. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing.
  • Tashie, C., Shapiro-Barnard, S., Schuh, M., Jorgensen, C. M., Dillon, A. D., Dixon, B., & Nisbet, J. (1994). From special to regular, from ordinary to extraordinary. Durham, NH: Institute on Disability/UAP, University of New Hampshire.
  • When spider webs unite: Shafik in action. (n.d.). Toronto: Inclusion Press.
  • Williams, L. J., & Downing, J. E. (1998). Membership and belonging in inclusive classrooms: What do middle school students have to say? JASH, 23(2), 98-110.
  • With kids my age: Answers to questions about inclusion. (1994). Texas: The Arc of Texas/Inclusion Works!
  • Vandercook, T., & York-Barr, J. (Eds.). (2003, Winter). IMPACT: Feature Issue on Revisiting Inclusion K-12 Education, 16(1). Minneapolis: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.
  • Vitello, S. J., & Mithaug, D. E. (1998). Inclusive schooling: National and international perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Newsletters and E-Newsletters

The newsletters included here are primarily electronic (“e-newsletters”) delivered directly to your personal e-mail accounts. There are a few that may require membership or are by regular mail only.


ASCD SmartBrief
http://www.smartbrief.com/ascd/

ASCD SmartBrief is a free daily news briefing delivered directly through e-mail. Each issue takes reports the most salient news and trends affecting education today. This free service will help break through information overload and provide quick, easy-to-read summaries of top news in education today.


Autism Today
http://www.autismtoday.com

In return for signing the Autism Today guest book, you can receive their free monthly newsletter providing the latest news, resources, articles, and other information concerning autism and Asperger’s Syndrome.


The Beacon
Harbor House Law Press
http://www.harborhouselaw.com/newsletter.html

The Beacon publishes articles and essays for attorneys, advocates and others who are interested in special education law and practice. Each issue focuses on a theme and includes practical and theoretical articles.


Bridges4Kids News Digest
http://www.bridges4kids.org/Subscribe.html

A free, weekly electronic newsletter full of information related to Special Education and Disabilities.


The Cooperative Link
Cooperative Learning Institute, University of Minnesota

This is the newsletter of The Cooperative Learning Institute at the University of Minnesota and contains short articles and brief news items related to cooperative learning and conflict resolution. Published by the Interaction Book Company, 7208 Cornelia Drive, Edina MN 55435 952-831-9500 FAX 952-831-9332. Most of the past newsletters are available online at: http://www.co-operation.org/#newsletters.


E-News
National Institute for Urban School Improvement
http://www.edc.org/urban/news.htm

Distributed monthly via electronic mail, E-News serves to inform visitors of the work of the National Institute and other organizations engaged in similar work, upcoming conferences and events, new online and off-line products and resources, and other news happening in the field of urban education and inclusive schooling.


E-News
National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET)
http://www.ncset.org/enews/default.asp

E-News is NCSET’s monthly e-mail newsletter announcing national resources, events, funding opportunities, and more. The purpose of E-News is to provide useful information and timely news updates that will improve your access to knowledge and skill building in the areas of secondary education and transition. E-News is an “information only” resource and does not provide a forum for interactive discussion among subscribers.


The Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education
http://www.ed.wright.edu/~prenick/#

This electronic journal publishes research, reviews, scholarly writings and poetry concerning the inclusion of students with special learning needs in regular classrooms. The Electronic Journal is concerned with inclusion issues at all levels of educational endeavors: research, administrative issues, classroom teaching and exemplary university student work.


ERIC Digests
http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/

ERIC Digests are short reports targeted for teachers, administrators, policymakers and others on a wide range of topics of current interest in education compiled from 16 specialized ERIC Clearinghouses through the U.S.


IDEAnews
http://www.ideapractices.org/ideanews/index.php

IDEAnews is a free newsletter that includes: IDEA-related news briefs, upcoming conferences and events, new products and resources, and information on new information on IDEA Practices web site.


The Inclusion Notebook
University of Connecticut
A.J. Pappanikou Center for Developmental Disabilities
http://www.uconnced.org/pubs.htm

This newsletter, formerly published by Pennycorner Press, is back in print and is now being published by the A.J. Pappanikou Center at the University of Connecticut. The Inclusion Notebook is noted as a resource for “problem solving in the classroom and community.”


Inclusion Times
National Professional Resources, Inc.
http://www.nprinc.com/

This newsletter provides the busy administrator/supervisor/educator responsible for children and youth with disabilities with eye-opening resources to better serve children. Subscription rates as of 2003: One year (5 issues): $59.95; Two years (10 issues) $89.95. A sample issue can be downloaded for free at: http://www.nprinc.com/pdf/inclusion_times.pdf (requires the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Program available at http://www.adobe.com)


Journal of Special Education Technology (JSET)
http://jset.unlv.edu/shared/about.html

JSET is a refereed, professional journal that presents up-to-date information and opinions about issues, research, policy, and practice related to the use of technology in the field of special education. Access to the online edition of this journal is provided free of charge.


Monday Morning in Washington, DC
Inclusion Research Institute, Washington, DC
http://www.inclusionresearch.org/Monday.htm

This free weekly newsletter brings events of importance to parents, children and individuals with disabilities. To subscribe to this weekly email newsletter, send your request to MMWDC@inclusionresearch.org.


New Horizons Online Journal
http://www.newhorizons.org

This is an online journal concerning a range of issues involved in the education of children of ages and abilities. Includes articles, a feature called “The Giraffe Project” about those they’ve discovered “quietly sticking their necks out to make the world a better place,” Recommended Reading, information new on their bulletin boards, as well as links to web sites, announcements, interesting reading and great resources.


Online With ADD E-zine
ADDResource.com
http://addresource.com/news/default.adhd

Free e-zine for the latest news about attention and learning issues on the Web. Previous issues are archived.


OnSpecialEd.com Newsletter
http://onspecialed.com/default.asp

OnSpecialEd.com has a free bi-monthly electronic newsletter available on learning disabilities and special education.


The Preview: Education Edition
Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
http://www.brookespublishing.com/lists/index.htm

While this is a newsletter from a commercial publisher, there are original articles, excerpts, and research-based strategies that can be of use.


The Special Ed Advocates
Wrightslaw
http://www.wrightslaw.com/subscribe.htm

This is a free online newsletter about special education legal and advocacy topics, as well as information on new cases, conferences, and other important information about special education law and advocacy. Also available on their web site is a list of Free Special Education Newsletters: (http://www.wrightslaw.com/flyers/free.nwltrs.pdf)


TASH Connections
http://www.tash.org/publications/newsletter/

TASH Connections, published 10x/year, is full of information on promising practices, family concerns, events and opportunities in a changing political environment. Subscription is free with TASH membership.


Technology Resources for Education Assistive Technology Supports (T.R.E.A.T.S.)
Technology Resources for Education (T.R.E.) Center
Capital Region BOCES
Albany, NY
http://www.trecenter.org/discuss-email.htm

This is a free, bi-weekly newsletter that provides information useful to those interested in the use of technology by students for disabilities.


GENERAL EDUCATION E-NEWSLETTERS

While not specifically disability-related, these education-related newsletters periodically contain information concerning inclusive education and may otherwise be of interest.


EDInfo Mailing List
U.S. Department of Education
http://www.ed.gov/MailingLists/EDInfo/ei-annou.html

This electronic mailing list provides up-to-date on reports and other information from the U.S. Department of Education. Archived from June 1995 to Present.


Innovative Teaching Newsletter
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Innovative-Teaching/
http://surfaquarium.com/it.htm

The Innovative Teaching newsletter is designed to keep teachers up to date with Internet resources on a weekly topic.


T.H.E. Newsletter
T.H.E. Focus
EduHound Weekly
http://www.thejournal.com/newsletters/

T.H.E. Newsletter is a weekly bulletin comprised of recent announcements that affect the education community. T.H.E. Focus, a bi-weekly interactive online newsletter that offers an in-depth look at a specific area of educational technology through articles written by technology experts. In addition, T.H.E. Focus allows you to ask questions and see comments from colleagues through a Web discussion board on T.H.E. Journal’s Web site. The EduHound Weekly newsletter covers tips on using the Internet in education and special topics with activities and links. These free e-newsletters supplement the magazine T.H.E. Journal, a free magazine for teachers on technology and education.


Technology & Learning Magazine
TechLearning News

http://www.techlearning.com/content/about/tl_current.html
http://www.techlearning.com/content/resources/newsletter.html

Technology & Learning magazine is circulated to over 80,000 elementary, middle, and high school teachers, technology coordinators, and administrators at the building, district, and state levels and publishes articles that encourage educators to think about new approaches to teaching and new ways to use technology in the classroom. TechLearning News is a free bi-monthly e-newsletter on new and emerging information and trends on educational technology.


EdWeek Update
http://www.edweek.org/emails/

EdWeek Update highlights select stories from the current issue of the online newspaper, Education Week, as well as special reports and education news from around the country. Great for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and parents. Other e-newsletters available are Career Coach, Teacher Recruiter, and Teacher Magazine Update.


PEN Weekly NewsBlast
http://www.PublicEducation.org/news/signup.htm

The Public Education Network (PEN), a national leader in school reform, provides information for anyone who wants to be “in the loop” about public education. The PEN Weekly NewsBlast provides tens of thousands of readers a free, unbiased selection of education headlines every week, and offers annotated links to articles about education: no politics, no preaching, no agenda.


Rethinking Schools
http://www.rethinkingschools.org/

Founded in 1986 by activist teachers, Rethinking Schools is a nonprofit, independent publisher of educational materials that advocates the reform of elementary and secondary education, with a strong emphasis on issues of equity and social justice.


ORGANIZATIONS AND PROJECTS

This section lists selected organizations and projects providing information and services concerning inclusive education. Also, we suggest you visit the section on Web Sites, since many groups are establishing themselves as web-based organizations.


Axis Consultation & Training Ltd.
340 Machleary Street
Nanaimo, BC V9R 2G9
CANADA
Telephone: (250) 754-9939
Fax: (250) 754-9930
Email: normemma@normemma.com
http://www.normemma.com/

Norman Kunc and Emma Van der Klift have spent the last 20 years working to ensure that people with disabilities are able to take their rightful place in schools, workplaces, and communities. In 1990, Norman and Emma established Axis Consultation and Training Ltd., which provides inservice and training in the areas of inclusive education, employment equity, conflict resolution, and other disability rights issues. They travel extensively throughout North America and, more recently, the world, working with school districts, human service agencies, employers and advocacy groups.


Consortium for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE)
P.O. Box 51360
Eugene, OR 97405-0906
(541) 686-5060 (Voice)
(541) 686-5063 (FAX)
(541) 284-4740 (TTY)
http://www.directionservice.org/cadre/

CADRE provides technical assistance to state departments of education on implementation of the mediation requirements under IDEA ’97. CADRE also supports parents, educators and administrators to benefit from the full continuum of dispute resolution options that can resolve conflicts and ultimately lead to informed partnerships that focus on results for children and youth.


The Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates
1321 Pennsylvania Ave, SE
Washington, DC 20003-3027
Telephone: (202) 544-2210
E-mail: copaa@copaa.net
http://www.copaa.net

An independent, nonprofit, tax-exempt organization of attorneys, advocates and parents established to improve the quality and quantity of legal assistance for parents of children with disabilities.


The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)
1110 North Glebe Road, Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22201
Voice Telephone: (703) 620-3660
TTY: (703) 264-9446
FAX: (703) 264-9494
E-mail: service@cec.sped.org
http://www.cec.sped.org/

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is dedicated to improving educational outcomes for students with disabilities. CEC advocates for appropriate governmental policies, sets professional standards, provides continual professional development, advocates for newly and historically underserved individuals, and helps professionals obtain conditions and resources for effective professional practice.


Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE)
PACER Center
8161 Normandale Blvd.
Minneapolis, MN 55437-1044
Telephone: 1-888-248-0822
E-mail: fape@pacer.org
http://www.fape.org

The Partnership is a new project aiming to inform and educate families and advocates about the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997. The Partnership helps to ensure that the changes made in IDEA are understood by families and advocates and are put into practice at local and state levels.


Indiana Institute on Disability and Community
Indiana University, Bloomington
David M. Mank, Ph.D., Director
2853 East Tenth Street
Bloomington, IN 47408-2696
Voice Telephone: (812) 855-6508
TTY: (812) 855-9396
Fax: (812) 855-9630
http://www.isdd.indiana.edu/

The mission of the Indiana Institute on Disability and Community is to provide leadership that enables communities to include, support, and empower people with disabilities and family members. The Institute accomplishes this by promoting innovative practices and policies that facilitate community membership.


Institute on Disability (IOD)
University of New Hampshire
7 Leavitt Lane Suite 101
Durham, NH 03820
Voice Telephone: (603) 862-4320
Fax: (603) 862-0555
http://www.iod.unh.edu

The Institute on Disability (IOD) at the University of New Hampshire was established in 1987 to provide a University-based focus for the improvement of knowledge, policy, and practice related to the economic and social participation of persons with disabilities in New Hampshire. The mission of the Institute on Disability is to promote the full inclusion of people with disabilities in their communities. To carry out that mission, the Institute on Disability runs a wide variety of programs and activities, and the Institute on Disability’s staff, through core and UCE funding and a series of grant-funded projects, work at all levels to address issues from birth through adulthood, including early care and education, elementary and secondary education, family support, transition and adult life, employment, housing, assistive technology, aging, and other areas.


National Center on Secondary Education and Transition
Institute on Community Integration
University of Minnesota
6 Pattee Hall
150 Pillsbury Drive SE
Minneapolis MN 55455
Voice Telephone: (612) 624-2097
Fax: (612) 624-9344
E-mail: ncset@umn.edu
http://www.ncset.org/

The National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET) coordinates national resources, offers technical assistance, and disseminates information related to secondary education and transition for youth with disabilities in order to create opportunities for youth to achieve successful futures.


The National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY)
P.O. Box 1492
Washington, DC 20013
1-800-695-0285
E-mail: nichcy@aed.org
http://www.nichcy.org/

NICHCY is a national information and referral center that provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues for families, educators, and other professionals. Their special focus is children and youth (birth to age 22), and they have several resources available concerning inclusive education. They also offer state resource sheets to help locate organizations and agencies within each state that address disability-related issues that include contacts for state senators, governors, agencies serving children and youth with disabilities, chapters of disability organizations and parent groups, andparent training and information projects.


Project Participate
University of Colorado Health Science Center
4200 E. 9th Avenue, C221
Denver, CO 80262
Phone: 303-864-5277 Fax: 303-864-5270
email: info@projectparticipate.org
http://www.projectparticipate.org/

Project Participate provides families, educators, administrators and therapists with simple strategies to increase the active participation of students with disabilities in school programs. Project Participate also facilitates team collaboration and promotes the appropriate uses of technology in the classroom. Their web site offers success stories and practical solutions to enhance learning, teaching, and the full inclusion of students with disabilities in the classroom. There are downloadable sample curricular adaptations, handouts for training, intervention planning forms, and more.


Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers
Alliance Coordinating Office
PACER Center
8161 Normandale Blvd
Minneapolis, MN 55437-1044
(952) 838-9000 – Voice
(952) 838-0190 – TTY
(952) 838-0199 – Fax
1-888-248-0822 toll free number nationwide
email: alliance@taalliance.org
http://www.taalliance.org/

The Alliance is an innovative project that focuses on providing technical assistance for developing and funded Parent Training, Information Projects and Community Parent Resource Centers under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).


Study of Personnel Needs in Special Education (SPeNSE)
Westat
1650 Research Boulevard
Rockville, MD 20850-3195
E-mail: spense@westat.com
http://www.spense.org/

The Study of Personnel Needs in Special Education (SPeNSE) was designed to address concerns about nationwide shortages in the number of personnel serving students with disabilities and the need for improvement in the qualifications of those employed. Part of a national assessment of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandated by Congress, SPeNSE examined (1) the extent to which personnel are adequately prepared to serve students with disabilities, (2) variation in personnel preparation, and (3) factors that explain that variation. SPeNSE provides information on the quality of the workforce nationally, within each geographic region, and within and across personnel categories. In addition, researchers use this information to explain the quality of the workforce based on state and local policies, preservice education, continuing professional development, and working conditions.


TASH (formerly The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps)
29 W. Susquehanna Ave., Suite 210
Baltimore, MD 21204
410-828-8274
http://www.tash.org

TASH is an international association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals fighting for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm.


WEB SITES

The World Wide Web (WWW) has enabled the exchange of information and outreach on a level not previously possible. In this section, selected web sites are highlighted and topics on a wide range of material concerning inclusive and general education are included. We also suggest you visit the section on Organizations and Projects, since many have web sites that may be of interest.


Bandaides & Blackboards – When Chronic Illness…or Some Other Medical Program… Goes to School
http://www.lehman.cuny.edu/faculty/jfleitas/bandaides/

This web site, developed by a nursing professor, provides a way to help people understand what it’s like to grow up with chronic health problems from the perspective of the children and teens. The site is constructed into three parts: one for kids, one for teens, and one for adults.


Bright Futures for Families
http://www.brightfuturesforfamilies.org

Bright Futures for Families is a national child health initiative to promote and improve the health, education, and well being of all children, families, and communities.


Center for Special Education Finance
http://csef.air.org

The Center for Special Education Finance (CSEF) was established to address fiscal policy questions related to the delivery and support of special education services throughout the United States.


Circle of Inclusion
http://www.circleofinclusion.org/

This site is for early childhood service providers and families of young children. This web site offers demonstrations of and information about effective practices in inclusive educational programs for children from birth through age eight.


The Disability Resources Monthly Guide to Disability Resources on the Internet
http://www.disabilityresources.org/

Disability Resources, Inc. disseminates information about books, pamphlets, magazines, newsletters, videos, databases, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, telephone hotlines and on-line services that provide free, inexpensive or hard-to-find information to help people with disabilities live independently. They review and report on worthwhile materials in their low-cost newsletter, Disability Resources Monthly (DRM) and other publications.


The Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion (ECRII)
http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~ecrii/

ECRII was a five-year national research project funded by the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education to study the inclusion of preschool children with disabilities in typical preschool, day care and community settings. While the project ended in 2000, this web site contains information on their research and publications.


ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education
http://www.ericec.org

The ERIC Clearinghouse web site has a wide range of fact sheets, mini-bibliographies and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on a wide range of issues concerning children with disabilities, including several topics on education. Also, The ERIC/OSEP Special Project (http://ericec.org/osep-sp.html) tracks and disseminates federally funded special education research for practitioners through various publications and conferences. Publications include Research Connections, a biannual review of OSEP-sponsored research on topics in special education, Newsbriefs, which summarize some of the most recent research from OSEP, Topical Briefs, short publications that are intended to increase awareness and understanding of specific subjects, and special public awareness campaigns such as Learning to Read, Reading to Learn.


Families & Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE)
http://www.fape.org

The Families and Advocates Partnership for Education (FAPE) project is a partnership that aims to improve educational outcomes for children with disabilities. It links families, advocates, and self-advocates to communicate the new focus of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).


Federal Resource Center for Special Education (FRC)
http://www.dssc.org/frc/

The FRC supports a national technical assistance network to respond to the needs of students with disabilities, especially students from under-represented populations. Through its work with Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) and the technical assistance networks, the FRC provides a national perspective for establishing technical assistance activities within and across regions by identifying and synthesizing emerging issues and trends.


Inclusion – “Children Who Learn Together, Learn to Live Together”
http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/

This web site is designed for general and special education teachers, parents, and school staff to help provide some ideas about ways inclusive education can be accomplished. Resources for making accommodations are included as well as links to other web sites and resource lists for learning more about inclusive education.


Inclusion Press International
http://www.inclusion.com

This is the web site of Inclusion Press, a publisher of books, videos and CD-ROMs with a clear vision and mission to make the world a more just and humane place for all to live. Their motto: Together We’re Better. Their commitment: All Really Does mean ALL.


IDEA Practices
http://www.ideapractices.org

This is the web site of IDEA Partnerships, which seeks to inform professionals, families and the public about IDEA ’97 and strategies to improve educational results for children and youth with disabilities. The IDEA Partnerships is a collaboration of four groups: ASPIIRE, representing service providers; ILIAD, representing administrators; FAPE, representing families and advocates; and PMP, representing policymakers.


Internet Special Education Resources (ISER)
http://www.iser.com

ISER is an online, nationwide directory of professionals who serve the learning disabilities and special education communities. ISER provides a resource to parents and educators that helps them to find local education professionals to accompany them through the local school’s IEP process, help to diagnosis a child’s learning difficulty or disability, locate the best school for a child, and other helpful supports.


Keys to Inclusion: Advancing the National Dialogue on Including Your Children with Disabilities in Their Communities
http://www.nectas.unc.edu/inclusion/

This web site is designed for administrators of state agencies responsible for services to young children and their families, including child care, Head Start, education, and early intervention. Information provided includes information on Legislation and Policies; National Organizations; Research; Meetings; Effective Practices; Funding; Collaborative Activities; and Personnel Development.


National Center on Educational Outcomes
http://www.coled.umn.edu/nceo/

The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) provides information in designing and building educational assessments and accountability systems that appropriately monitor educational results for all students, including students with disabilities and students with limited English proficiency. NCEO has several publications available via their web site as well as information on special topics, including Accommodations, Accountability, Alternate Assessments, Graduation Requirements, and others.


National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education
http://www.special-ed-careers.org

The National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education (NCPSE) is committed to enhancing the nation’s capacity to recruit, prepare, and retain well-qualified, diverse educators and related service personnel for children with disabilities.


National Inclusive Schools Week Celebration Kit
http://www.edc.org/urban/kit.html

The first National Inclusive Schools Week occurred December 3-7, 2001, and this web site contains a Celebration Kit including everything you need to plan for National Inclusive Schools Week in coming years—publications that speak to the benefits of inclusive schools, suggested readings for children and adults, a lengthy list of celebration ideas and lesson plans, and materials to use in promoting the Week—and inclusive education—in your community.


New Horizons for Learning: Resources for Teaching and Learning at All Ages and Abilities
http://www.newhorizons.org/

New Horizons for Learning is a free, public service, volunteer network of educators. New Horizons for Learning connects people to one another and to resources, serving the worldwide Internet community by offering an expanded view of teaching, learning, and developing intelligence more fully. Their activities include publishing materials, producing conferences, consulting, and collaborating on projects and programs.


Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP

OSEP is dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts.


Paraeducator Resource and Learning Center (PRLC)
http://www.uvm.edu/~cdci/prlc/

The PRLC provides online information for paraeducators about important topics divided into six units: Collaborative Teamwork, Inclusive Education, Families and Cultural Sensitivity, Characteristics of Children and Youth with Various Disabilities, Roles and Responsibilities of Paraeducators and Other Team Members, Implementing Teacher-planned Instruction.


Project Participate
http://www.projectparticipate.org/

Project Participate provides families, educators, administrators and therapists with simple strategies to increase the active participation of students with disabilities in school programs. Project Participate facilitates team collaboration and promotes the appropriate uses of technology in the classroom.


Project TechLink
http://www.vcu.edu/rrtcweb/techlink/

Project TechLink is a web-based venture that provides resources and contacts for information about transition from school to adulthood for those who support school-aged individuals with disabilities. They offer a bulletin board, chat room, e-mail, self-study courses, and ongoing transition updates.


Special Education Law & Advocacy Strategies, Reed Martin, J.D.
http://www.reedmartin.com

Reed Martin is an attorney who has concentrated on special education rights for over 32 years. His web site contains vast amounts of information on a wide range of legal and advocacy issues for parents and other advocates. A free e-newsbulletin on special education legal rights is offered, and there are numerous free articles on a broad range of topics concerning legal issues in special education. Mr. Martin also provides information on several workshops he conducts throughout the country, and also schedules regular online chats (“Ask Reed Tonight”) frequently. Quick links to other information on the Internet are also included.


TASH
http://www.tash.org

TASH is an international association of people with disabilities, their family members, advocates, and professionals fighting for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm. TASH supports a vision of high expectations for all students and a commitment to learning goals or standards that are strong, clear, understood, and that are put into practice. TASH values and supports diversity and recognizes both the legal right to and the reciprocal benefits of inclusive education. Their web site includes a range of information concerning inclusive quality education for all students.


Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers
http://www.taalliance.org

The Alliance is an innovative project that focuses on providing technical assistance for establishing, developing, and coordinating Parent Training and Information Projects (PTIs) and Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in each state which provides training and information to parents of infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities and to professionals who work with children.


The Urban Special Education Leadership Collaborative
http://www.edc.org/collaborative/

A network of special education leaders from the nation’s urban school districts, the Collaborative currently links more than 175 administrators from 80 school districts in 24 U.S. states and the US Virgin Islands through conferences, newsletters, and leadership development opportunities. They also produce a newsletter, Urban Perspectives.


Whole Schooling Consortium
http://golem.coe.wayne.edu/CommunityBuilding/WSCtxt.html

The Whole Schooling Consortium is a network of schools, university faculty, teachers, parents, and community members whose goals are to promote Whole Schooling practices through research, professional development, and advocacy; build a grassroots network of schools, university faculty, and community members who can provide mutual support to one another; link urban, suburban, and rural schools in promoting Whole Schooling practices; develop a network of exemplary schools who are intentionally seeking to promote both equity and excellence in educational practices; and conduct research to understand best educational practices.


RESOURCES ON IDEA

These are some of the more prominent resources on IDEA, but they are by no means the only ones. We’ve included those highlighted here as a quick and easily accessible list rather than as a comprehensive review. For additional publications on IDEA, we suggest you browse the policy section of the annotated bibliography in this information package. The listing of organizations and web sites may contain even more information. (NOTE: This list was compiled in early 2003, long before more recent events)


IDEA Rapid Response Network
http://www.dredf.org/rapid.html

The Disability Rights Education And Defense Fund (DREDF) has launched the IDEA Rapid Response Network. Comprised of parents of children with disabilities, advocates and supporters, the Network is building a cadre of parents and supporters nationwide who can be called upon to respond to proposed amendments or concepts for changes to IDEA that might weaken, eliminate or in any way compromise the civil rights of children with disabilities during the current Congressional reauthorization process; and educating and informing parents about proposals to amend IDEA. If you wish to receive email information about reauthorization activities and/or participate in the Network, send an email to preserveIDEA@dredf.org, including your name, contact information (postal address, telephone number, and email) and whether you only want updates or would also like to participate in the Network.


Information on Reauthorization of IDEA 2003
http://www.wrightslaw.com/news/idea2002.htm

This web site contains information updates about hearings, resources, and alerts and newsletters on the reauthorization of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).


Back to School on Civil Rights
http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/backtoschool_1.html – HTML
http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/pdf/backtoschool.pdf – PDF
http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/pdf/backtoschool_span.pdf – Spanish PDF

This report, the second in a series of independent analyses by the National Council on Disability (NCD) of federal enforcement of civil rights laws, looks at more than two decades of federal monitoring and enforcement of compliance with Part B of IDEA. The report includes recommendations to the President and the Congress that would build on the 1997 reauthorization of IDEA. The intent is to advance a more aggressive, credible, and meaningful federal approach to enforcing this critical civil rights law, so that the nation’s 25-year-old commitment to effective education for all children will be more fully realized. NCD has other studies concerning education available on its web site, as well as a section concerning IDEA Reauthorization (http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/reauthorizations/idea/idea.html), containing written testimony, remarks, and other information issued by the National Council on Disability (NCD) on the Reauthorization of IDEA.


IDEA Practices
http://www.ideapractices.org

This is the web site of IDEA Partnerships, which seeks to inform professionals, families and the public about IDEA ’97 and strategies to improve educational results for children and youth with disabilities. The IDEA Partnerships is a collaboration of four groups: ASPIIRE, representing service providers; ILIAD, representing administrators; FAPE, representing families and advocates; and PMP, representing policymakers. There are several IDEA-specific resources available via their web site, including a CD-ROM, videos, and a training package. Also available is an electronic newsletter, IDEAnews (http://www.ideapractices.org/ideanews/index.php) that includes: IDEA-related news briefs, upcoming conferences and events, new products and resources, and information on new information on the web site.


Great IDEAs About Special Education Reform
Subcommittee on Education Reform
U.S. House of Representatives
http://edworkforce.house.gov/issues/107th/education/idea/ideacomments/
index.htm

E-mail: IDEA@mail.house.gov
Telephone: (202) 225-4527
TDD/TTY: (202) 226-3372

This particular web site offers the public an opportunity to comment on the current reauthorization of IDEA and special education reform. Portions of testimony from this Subcommittee can be found at: http://edworkforce.house.gov/hearings/108th/edr/edrhearings.htm
and http://edworkforce.house.gov/hearings/107th/edr/edrhearings.htm


Selected OSEP Memoranda and Other Publications Regarding IDEA
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/OSEP/Products/omip.html

This web site lists selected OSEP materials concerning IDEA sorted by subject.